Tripura was princely state till the merger with Indian union of 15th
November, 1949. The last king Bir Bikram was in the throne, immediately before
India's independence. But he died on 17th May 1947, at Agartala,
could not see the dawn of India's independence.
Just prior to India's independence, there was a large scale Hindu Muslim riot
in all oever India, it has a worst impact in Noakhali, of the present
Bangladesh, many Hindu minorities were killed. M.K. Gandhi was there touring to
stop the violence and riots. Many people were forced to leave their ancestral
home, large scale migration of refugee took place in Tripura kingdom, the king
Bir Bikram Bahadur Manikya gave them shelter, food, clothing, and medical help.
This was the beginning of changing of population ratio of Tripura, as these
refugees were later not returned back rather rehabilitated in Tripura.
The tragic death of Last ruling king B.B. Bahadur Manikya was most
unfortunate for Tripuri people and in the history of Tripura. After his demise,
his minor son Kirri bikram Mannikya took the throne of Tripura kingdom, but he
could not rule as he was minor. So his widow queen Kanchan Prabha took the
charge of regency of Tripura and took over the administrative charges. She was
instrumental for Merger of Tripura kingdom in Indian union. Ultimately the
merger agreement was signed by her and came into effect from 15th
Nov.1949, and Tripura kingdom ceased to exist and was included in Class C of
After the accession of Tripura in Indian union, there were large scale
migrations of Hindu Bengali refugee of riots victims from the erstwhile nascent
state Pakistan (East). This had created a deep and long lasting impact in the
political, social, economical, and racial aspect in Tripura. The native Tripuri
people, who were majority, had a ruling king and administrative control over
thousands of years had been reduced to minority. This is clearly reflected in
the Census report of 1961 AD. The economic and political power of Tripuri people
had been reduced to naught, as in democracy numbers matters not originality. The
pivot of power had shifted from native Tripuri people to recently migrated
refugee Hindu Bengali. This development had created resentment among educated
Tripuri people, as the annoyance piled up gradually, it had reached to the
threshold in the 1980, resulting in Tripuri-Bengali riot, which saw killing of
many innocent people, mainly of minority native Tripura people.
There have been multiple impact of demographic changes that took place in
Tripura following refugees settlement from erstwhile East Pakistan in the
after math of India'a independence and partition. Apart from the political,
economical, social impacts it has also affected the Cultural and topographical aspect of Tripura. Most of
the names of different villages, hamlets, rivers, tributaries, markets, area,
hills, hillocks, towns etc had been Changed to suit the tongue of refugees, who
had since became majority population. This created the impression that Tripura
state did not belonged to Native Tripuri people, rather it created the idea that
the land had since been occupied by Indo-Arian language speakers, which it was
not till mid 20th century in true senses. These are just a tip of ice berg, the
list if added it would make almost all the geographical names of Tripura.
TRIPURA MERGER AGREEMENT
AGREEMENT made this the ninth day of September
1949, between the Governor-General of India and His Highness the Maharaja of
WREREAS in the best interest of the State of
Tripura as well as of the Dominion of India it is desirable to provide for the
administration of the said State by or under the authority of the Dominion
Government : -
IT is hereby agreed as follows :
Article - I
The Maharaja of Tripura
hereby cedes to the Dominion Government full and exclusive authority,
jurisdiction and powers for and in relation to the governance of the State and
agrees to transfer the administration of the State to the Dominion Government on
the fifteenth day of October, 1949 (hereafter referred to as 'the said day')
As from the said day the Dominion Government will be competent to exercise the
said powers, authority and jurisdiction in such manner and through such agency
as it may think fit.
Article - II
The Maharaja shall with
affect from the said day be entitled to receive from revenues of the State
annually for his privy purse the sum of Rupees Three lakes and thirty Thousand
only free of taxes. This amount is intended to cover all the expenses of the
Ruler and his family , including expenses on account of his personal staff,
maintenance of his residences, marriages and other ceremonies, etc. and will
neither be increased nor reduced for any reason whatsoever.
The said sum be drawn by
the Maharaja in four equal installments in advance at the beginning of each
quarter from the State Treasury or at such other treasury as may be specified by
the Government of India.
Article - III
The Maharaja shall be
entitled to the full ownership, use and enjoyment of all private properties (as
distinct from State properties) belonging to him on the date of this agreement.
The Maharaja will
furnish to the Dominion Government before the 10 th October, 1949. an inventory
of all the immovable property, securities and cash balances held by him as such
if any dispute arises as
to whether any item of property is the private property of the Maharaja of State
property it shall by referred to a judicial officer qualified to be appointed as
High Court judge, and the decision of that officer shall be final and binding on
Article - IV
The Maharaja shall be
entitled to all the personal rights, privileges, immunities and dignities
enjoyed by him as the Ruler of Tripura. whether within or without the state.
Article - V
All the members of the
Maharaja's family including Her Highness the Rajmata shall be entitled to all
the personal privileges, dignities and titles enjoyed by them, whether within or
outside the territories of the State, immediately before the 15 th day of
Article - VI
The Dominion Government
guarantees the succession according to law and custom, to the gaddi of the State
and to the Maharaja's personal rights, privileges, dignities and titles.
Article - VII
No inquiry shall be made
by or under the authority of the Government of India, and no proceedings shall
lie in any Court of Tripura, against His Highness the Maharaja or His Highness
the Regent whether in a personal capacity or otherwise, in respect of anything
done or committed to be done by them under their authority during the period of
the Regency administration of the state.
Article - VIII
The Government of India
hereby guarantees either the continuance in service of the permanent members of
the public services of Tripura on conditions which will be no less advantageous
than those on which they were serving before the date on which the
administration of Tripura is made over to the Government of India of the payment
of reasonable compensation
Article - IX
Except with the previous sanction of the
Government of India, no proceedings, civil or criminal, shall be instituted
against any person in respect of any act done or purporting to be one in the
execution of his duties as a servant of the State before the day on which the
administration is made over to the Government of India. In confirmation whereof
Mr. Vapal Pangunni Menon, adviser to the Government of India in the Ministry of
States, appended his signature on behalf and with the authority of the
Governor-General of India and His Highness Maharaja Kanchan Prabha Devi,
Maharani Regent of Tripura, has appended her signature on behalf of His Highness
Maharaja Manikya Kirit Bikram Kishore Dev Barma Bahadur, the minor Ruler of
Tripura his heirs and successors.
Go to Top
INSTRUMENT OF ACCESSION
WHEREAS, the Indian Independent Act, 1947 provides that as from the
fifteenth day of August, 1947 there shall be set up an Independent Dominion
known as INDIA, and that the Government of India Act, 1935 shall with such
omissions, additions, adaptations and modification as the Governor-General
may be order specify be applicable to the Dominion of India.
AND WHEREAS the Government of India Act, 1953
as so adapted by the Governor-General provides that an Indian state may
secede to the Dominion of India by an Instrument of Accession executed by
the Ruler thereof.
NOW THEREFORE I, Kanchan Prabha Devi, Maharani
Regent of Tripura state in the exercise of my sovereignty in and over my
said State do hereby execute this my Instrument of Accession and
1. I hereby d
Clare that I accede to the Dominion of India with the intent that the
Governor-General of India, the Dominion of legislature, the Federal Court
and other Dominion authority established for the purposes of the Dominion
shall, by virtue of this my Instrument of Accession but subject always to
the terms thereof, and for the purposes only of the Dominion exercise in
relation to the State of TRIPURA (hereinafter referred to as 'the State')
such functions as my be vested in them by or under the Government of India
Act, 1953, as in force in the Dominion of India on the 15 th day August,
1947 (which Act as so in force in hereinafter referred to as 'the Act') and
I further declare that the Dominion of India may, through such agency of
agencies and in such manner, as it thinks fit exercise in relation to the
administration of civil and criminal justice in this State all such powers,
authorities and jurisdiction as were at any time exercisable by His
Majesty's representative for the exercise of the functions of the Crown in
its relations with Indian states.
2. I hereby
assume the obligation of ensuring that due effect is given to the provisions
of the Act within this State so far as they are applicable therein by
virtue of this my Instrument of Accession.
prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 1, I accept the matters specified
in the scheduled here to as the matters with respect to which the Dominion
Legislature may make laws for this State.
4. I hereby
declare that I accede to the Dominion of India on the assurance that it an
agreement is made between the Governor-General and the ruler of this State
whereby and function in relation to the administration in this State of any
law of dominion legislature shall be exercised by the Ruler of this State,
then any such agreement shall be deemed to form part of this Instrument and
shall be construed and have effect according,
5. The terms of
this my Instrument of Accession shall not be varied by any amendment of the
Act or of the Indian Independence Act. 1947, unless such amendment is
accepted by me by an Instrument supplementary to this Instrument,
6. Nothing is
this Instrument shall empower the Dominion Legislature to make any law for
this State authorising the compulsory acquisition of land for any purpose,
but I hereby undertake that should the Dominion for purpose of a Dominion
law which applies in this State deem it necessary to acquire any land, I
will at their request the land at their expense or if the land belong to me
transfer it to them on such terms as may be agreed, or in default of
agreement, determined by an arbitrator to be appointed by the chief justice
7. Nothing in
this Instrument shall be deemed to commit me in any way to acceptance of and
future constitution of India or to fetter my discretion to enter into
arrange ment with the government of India under any such future
8. Nothing in
this Instrument affects the continuance of my sovereignty in and over this
State, or save as provided by or under this Instrument, the exercise of any
owers, authority and rights now enjoyed by me as Ruler of this State or the
validity of any law at present in force in this state.
9. I hereby
declare that execute this Instrument on behalf of this State and that any
reference in this Instrument to me or to the Ruler of the State is to be
construed as including a reference to my heirs and successors.
Given under my hand
this 13 th day of August, Nineteen hundred and forty - seven.
Sd/ Kanchand Prabha
Devi Maharani Regent of Tripura
I do hereby accept
this Instrument of Accession. Dated this 13 th day of August, Nineteen
hundred and forty - seven.
Governor-General of India .
The matters with
respect to which the Dominion legislature may make laws for this State
The naval, military
and air force of the Dominion and any other armed forces raised or
maintained by the Dominion, any armed forces, including forces raised or
maintained by an Acceding state, which are attached to, or operating with,
any of the armed forces of the Dominion.
Naval, military and
air force works, administration of cantonment areas.
B. EXTERNAL AFFAIRS
External affairs the
implementing of treaties and agreements with other countries, including
the surrender of criminals and accused persons to parts of His Majesty's
Dominion outside India.
and emigration and expulsion from, India, indluding in relation thereto
the regulation of the movements in India of persons who are not British
subjects domiciled in India or subjects of any acceding State, pilgrimages
to places beyond India.
telegraphs, wireless broadcasting and other like forms of communication.
Federal railway, the
regulation of all railways other than minor railways in respect of safety,
maximum and minimum rates and fares, station and service terminal changes,
interchange of traffic and the responsibility of railways administrations
as carrier of goods and passengers, the regulation of minor railways in
respect of safety and responsibility of the administration of such
railways as carriers of goods and passengers.
and navigation, including shipping and navigation on tidal waters,
Major ports, that is
to say, the declaration and administration of the ports, and the
constitution and powers of port Authorities therein.
Aircraft and Air
navigation, the provision of aerodromes regulation and organization of Air
traffic and of aerodromes.
including lightships, beacons and other provisions for the safety of
shipping and aircraft.
passengers and goods by sea or by air
Extension of the
powers and jurisdiction of members of the police force belonging to any
unit to railway area outside that unit.
1. Elections to
the Dominion Legislature, subject to the provisions of the Act and of any
order made there under.
against laws with respect to any of the aforesaid matters.
3. Inquiries and
statistics for the purpose of any of the aforesaid matters.
and powers of all courts with respect to any of the aforesaid matters, but
except with the consent of the Ruler of the acceding state, not so as to
confer any jurisdiction and powers upon any courts other courts ordinarily
exercising jurisdiction in or in relation to that State.
Go to Top