Home | About Us | Contact Us | Feedback  |

News |                                                                                 | |


» Mythology

» Ancient

» Rajmala

» English Period

» Post-Independence

» Modern

» Heritages


» Tripuris

» Indigenous

» Non-Tripuris

» Immigrants


» The 14 Gods

» Goria

» Mata

» Boro Kwina


» Creation-Universe

» Life in Earth

» Shiva

» Subrai Khung

» Tripureswari

» Goria

» Dungur

» Kharchi

» Ker

» Hojagiri

» Hangrai

» Buisu


» Baba Goria Mission

» Shanti Kali Mission

» Lampra Goria

» Lampra Goirokya

» Chokhani Khorang

» Delhi Tripura


» Buisu-Sena

» Mamita

» Hojagiri

» Lebangbumani

» Huk Hokma

» Goria Mwsamung


» The land

» Weather

» Flora & Fauna

» Tours & Travels

  Crafts and Cuisines

» Crafts

» Cakes and Bakes

» Cooking

» Brews & Beverages

  Customs and Rituals

» Births

» Marriages 

» Deaths

» Other Socials

  Traditional Knowledge

» Games

» Medicines

» Folk Tales

» Folk Songs

Tripura, the land of History and Legends

Tripuri Roots Through Rajmala








The Rajmala is the royal chronicle of Tripura kings that ruled for about five thousand years since the mythological prehistoric times. So called historically, the period of the royal dynasty is three thousand years old. The Tripuri people in general believe that they & the royal dynasties of Tripura were descendant of Chandra Vamsha. Historically it can be proved that the Chandra dynasty was basically of Kirata origin, which is ethnologically known as Indo-Mongoloid people. They were among the first to come in India, in the prehistoric time around 8000 BC, through the Khyber Pass, north west of Indian Subcontinent. This human ethnic group then settled first in the Indus Valley region, founded the Indus civilisation along with some other human groups and latter spread all over India. This fact can be substantiated by a Mongoloid race skull discovered in the Mohenjo-daro excavation, and a terracotta figurine of Mongoloid look.  

The list of all the kings and their stories were passed down orally through the Chantai, the Royal priest of Tripura from generation to generation, like the Veda used to be memorized by Brahmins and passed down generation by generation. The Chantai was the head and royal priest and still worshiping the fourteen gods, which are the Kula Devata of Tripuri people and the dynasty. The earlier Rajmala was composed in Sanskrit as "RAJRATNAKARAM". As per the records of Rajmala, it was originally written in Tripuri language, by Chantai Durlabhendra, which was later on translated in Sanskrit and Bengali. It was considered as one of the earliest Bengali literature. The Rajmala has four volume, written at different time and by different author. Many scholars had studied the book and most of independent and neutral researchers and experts have described as authentic, true and historically valuable. Here are some of the excerpts from different scholars:

Genealogy of Tripura's princely rulers:

The early history of the kingdom of Tripura is a complex blend of history with mythology .According to 'Rajmala' Tripura's royal house trace their origin to the celebrated 'lunar' dynasty, following in the footsteps of their counterparts in the Hindu royal houses of the rest of India who claim to have originated from the 'lunar' or 'solar' dynasty. Thus we have on the authority of 'Rajmala' that mythological prince Druhya, third son of king Yayati of 'Mahabharatha', moved eastward along the lower course of the Ganges before reaching the Sagar island in the Sundarbans .

 Finally he obtained safe asylum in the hermitage of 'Kapil Muni' and with the saintly blessing Druhya set up a kingdom called 'Tribeg' along the lower course of the mighty 'Brahmaputra'. Later Druhya undertook northeastward expansion of his kingdom across Assam along the upper course of the river and shifted his capital . Again according to 'Rajmala', Druhya , the founder king , was succeeded by nearly two hundred mythological rulers. But the mythology or legend appears to have assumed grand proportions around the character of 'Tripur', the fortieth ruler from Druhya's direct line of succession.

Tripur's acts of perfidy and persecution of people made his subjects seek intervention from 'Mahadeva', the Hindu God of War, who finally killed him. With 'Mahadeva's blessing Queen Hirabati gave birth to a virtuous king Trilochan who is believed to have attended the 'Rajsuya' sacrifice organized by the celebrated Pandava ruler Yudhisthira of the 'Mahabharatha'. However, Trilochan's successors subsequently retreated from their orginal royal domain and settled down in the present state of Tripura.


Review of Rajmala By Experts Scholars

James Long's

E.F. Sandy's

Analysis Of RajMala Or Chronicles Of Tripura-1850 AD
By Rev. James Long

 Dr. Wise of Dacca having presented to the Asiatic Society the Rajmala, an ancient Historical poem in Bengal verse, I was requested by the Society to report on it, and also to furnish them with an analysis of the original for the Journal, in order to enable the members to judge of the subject of the poem itself. I hope one day to see the Bengali printed, as though interspersed with a variety of legends and myths, it gives us a picture of the state of Hindu Society and customs in a country little known to Europeans,- Tripura, the Highlands of Bengal, the last Country that yielded to the tide of Moslem invasion, and which in its mountain fastnesses r1etained for so long a period the Hindu traditions unmixed with views that might stream in from other countries. It had been long the chosen abode of Sivism, the aboriginal religion having been supplanted by the latter system, as is indicated by the myth which represents Siva destroying the Asura Tripura, and Tripura as being the favourite residence of Siva, a pithasthan - the right leg of Sati having fallen there. The Brahmans exercised as arbitrary sway over the minds of the hill chieftains as ever did Druid on the customs of our Celtic ancestors.

"The embroidery of imagination does not entirely conceal the groundwork of truth." The remark made by Richardson, the compiler of the Persion Dictionary, is fully applicable to such works as the Rajmala, The Raghu Vansa &c. "The Shah Nama, like homer, when stript of the machinery of supernatural beings, contains much of true history, and a most undoubted picture of the superstition and manners of the times."  In all the great historians of antiquity we have facts mixed up with fable, yet we do not reject Roman history notwithstanding the fictions connected with its early history, nor European history on account of the tales told of Charlemagne under the name of Turpin, - why should we not make the Same concession with respect to the events connected with Rama Chandra, the Peter the great of his Day? Rama's invasion of the South is as firmly established a point as the Norman Conquest, and his invasion of Ceylon is as authentic a fact as the seize of Troy. In truth the career of Rama was one of far greater interest and imp4tance to masses of mankind, than the foray of petty Grecian kings, though dressed up by the magic pen of Homer.

Go to Top

The professedly historical documents of the Hindus are few and meagre. It is chiefly by the clues give in such works as the Ramayana and Mahabharata, where fact is blended with fable, as in the novels and poem of Sir W. Scot that we can grope our way. Yet important data may be elicited even form such writings as these b careful investigations, as was effected by Todd in his Rajasthan, who obtained such useful materials from the poems of Chand and other bards of Rajputana. Lassen in his valuable work, the indische Alterthumaskunde, has poured a flood of light on them ancient history and Geography of India, derived from the references in the Mahabharata; he has by a skilful analysis extracted from a large mass of beautiful and interesting poetry, reference which will be of great use to the historians of India ad .has thus shown that Sanskrit poetry is not that aggregate of absurd and monstrous fiction that some would consider it to be; for instance the Ramayana has for its basis expedition of Rama to the south, who was the pioneer of Civilisation to the barbarous aborigines of the Deccan: Like peter the great of Russia, he was obliged 1k use rough means with a rude people, in order to raise them to a higher status in society; Rama played as important and useful part on the world's theatre as either Aeneas or Agamemnon, the familiar heroes of College reading.

The RajMala or annals of Tripura were compiled by Banneswar and Sukreswar of the Royal Court of Tripura. Though many of the Rajas despised writing as being what they considered a mere mechanical art, yet like the Chinese emperors they provided for a record of the history of their empire by employing a board in their court, and though he bestowed lavish encomiums on the characters f the reigning monarch, yet he affords us information ccasiona1ly on various interesting points. Thus for instant the women exhibit a very different character from those of Bengal generally, and in daring and moral prowess remind one of the females in Rajputana or the Maratta country, though we have no account of any equaling Ahalya Bai in benevolence.

The Rajmala or history of Tripura comes in opportunely at the present time, when such an anxiety is shown by Savans to throw light on the manners, religion and history of India previous to the Mohammadan invasion, and also from the country described in the poem presenting various points of interest, whether we look at its position having the Buddhist kingdoms to the south, the Chinese empire in the East, the ancient kingdom of Kamrup in Assam to the North, or the aboriginal tribes of its frontiers. Its mountain fastnesses and lonely jungles enabled its chieftains, like the Welsh of former times, or the Hugonots of the Cevennes, to maintain a spirit of resistance to intruders, and to preserve down to the last century Hindu manners and customs uninfluenced by the control of Moslem propagandaism. Its rulers pride themselves on being of the lunar race, and in their descent from the chivalrous Kshetryas of Rajputana whose lofty bearing and prowess have been immortalized by the pen of Todd and Chand. While in Bengal the tide of foreign invasion has swept away almost all the ancient Hindu royal lines, the families of Vishnupur and Tripura have alone remained, though now "in the sere and yellow leaf."

The baleful influence of the Musalmans on Hindu nationality has in no instance been more destructively exercised than in its having prevented during the Moslem sway all Hindu efforts for the formation of a vernacular literature. Animated by the same recklessness and disregard of Consequences which prompted the Norman conqueror to aim at the extirpation of the English language, the Moslem conquerors discouraged the use of every tongue but their favourite Arabic or Parsian. This added to the proud disregard in which the Prakrita, the dialect of women and Rakshasas, was held by the Brahmán is the cause why we have so few works in Bengali of an ancient date; Kirtibas's  translation of the Ramayana made two centuries ago and the works relating to Chaitanya, are almost the only 'fragments from the wreck of time' handed down to us.

Go to Top

That noble institution Fort William College,- though now shorn of its splendour, through the mercenary utilitarian policy of men who in the pride of Western assumption have frowned on such efforts to cultivate the classic tongues of the East,- fostered a few works treating of the history of this country: Rama Lochan published his beautiful little work, a model for Bengali style, the history. of Raja Krishna Chandra Raya of Nadia, which presents various interesting sketches of Bengal at the period of the battle of Plassey. The history of Raja Pratapaditya of Jessore, compiled by another pandit of the same college, also gives us details respecting the Eastern part of Bengal two centuries ago, and of the large settlement and colony formed by Raja Pratapaditya in a suderbund district to the south of Kalna. The Assam Buranji is also of some use for historic purposes.

 These are composed in Bengali, but there is one work translated into English from the Persian which gives us more information respecting the state of Bengal in the last century than any book that has been published yet, the Sejr Mutakharin, which admits us behind the scenes in the Murshidahad Durbar, and paints to the life, the manners and customs of the Bengal Moslems of that period; it was written by an eye witness, who, like the compilers of the Raj Tarangini or Chronicles of Kashmir, his not shunned to point out the vices of men in high station.

The RajMala is a curiosity as presenting us with the oldest specimen of Bengali composition extant, the first part of it having been compiled in the beginning of the 15th century, the subsequent portions were composed at a more recent date. We may consider this then as the most 4itlcicnt work in Bengali that has come down to us, as the Chaitanya Charitamrita was not written before 1557, and Kirtibas subsequently translated the Ramayana.

The first part of this Raj Mala treats of THE TRADITIONAL PERIOD OF THE TRIPURA KINGS, which is mixed up with various mythological accounts; it informs us that the ancient name of Tripura was Kirata (the hunter) from a person of that name of the Lunar or Indo-Scythian race, the brother of Puru, who was banished to the Eastern provinces by his father Yayati who held the Samrat or supreme Government of India. He founded a city named Tribeg on the banks of the Twiyung i.e Brahmaputra (? At Triveni Sangam, Prayag) and subsequently abdicating the throne, he retired to the jungles to devote his life to religious objects.

Go to Top

His son Tripura succeeded him, a profligate tyrant who oppressed the worshippers of Siva; his subjects reduced to poverty emigrated to Hirambu (Kachar) but returned after five years, as Hirambu the Raja of Kamrup gave them no aid. On this they became votaries of Siva who promised them a son named Trilochan by the widow of Tripura, who would be successful, provided he adhered to the worship of the sun, and Moon, and that they worshipped at break of day, on certain occasions, the fourteen gods; i.e. the Sun, Moon, Himalaya, Kamadeva, Fire, Ganges, Water, Prabha, Ganesha, Kartika, Brahma, Sarasvati, Siva and Vishnu. In the course of time Trilochan was born and placed on the throne with the unanimous consent of the people, who waved two sacred banners over his head; he was distinguished for his wisdom, and the neighbouring kings paid him homage when he .was ten years old; the Raja of Hirambu offered him his daughter in marriage; he proceeded to Kachar where the marriage was celebrated with great pomp, and for nine days, food was supplied to every one at the king's expense: twelve Sons were the fruit of the marriage. Kamrup, called also Pragjyotisha, the Kamakhya of Sanskrit literature, the region of love according to the Hindus is famous from an early date; Bhagadatta, king of Kamrup is mentioned as a warrior in the Mahabharata; 18 centuries ago marriage alliances were formed between the royal families of Kamrup and Kashmir, the boundaries of the countries were extensive, reaching south of the Brahmaputra from Bontali to Kapalimukh, and on the North from the Karaty a river to the Dikolai. An account of Kamakhya is given in the Kalika Purana. It was the Kali Ghat of North Eastern Bengal.

On the death of the Raja of Hirambu, a dispute arose among his grandsons s to who should succeed to the throne. On this Trilochan sent a messenger to the Dandis or priests of the famous college of Mahadeva in Sagar island that state that Surjya whould be present to listen to their prayers when they worshipped the fourteen gods.

These priests refused at first to go to Tripura until they heard that Tripura, an enemy to the Brahmans was dead, and that Trilochan his successor being a devotee proposed going to Sagar island to convey them to his kingdom, attended by a large retinue. On their arrival they performed the usual ceremonies to the fourteen gods, together with the offering of buffaloes, ducks were sacrificed which were collected by the Kiratas and Kukis. On the great day of the festival all the gods assembled with the exception of Vishnu, the Dandi went to invite him, he came, and together with the other gods was so pleased that they promised always to protect the Tripura Raja, Triochan after conquering various countries visited Yudhisthir. He lived to an advanced age and was diligent in performing the following ceremonies, Durga Puja, Dol-jatra, Jal-jatra, Surjya Puja, Padma Puja, Bisava Sankranti.

Dakkhin succeeded in accordance with the wishes of the people and of his father Triochan, but the eldest on was much annoyed at his brother's receiving almost an equal share of his fathers property, only two being reserved for him and also that he did not succeed to the throne, being in Kachar at the time of his father's death. He in consequence declared war and gained a victory after a battle which lasted seven days, the eleven brothers fled to the Khalansha river where they founded a settlement. The brothers died in a good old age when he was preparing to abdicate the throne in consequence of a rebellion that broke out.

Go to Top

Fifty-six monarch succeeded him, whose names alone survive. Kumar, the fifty-seventh in succession visited Samulanagar "the dwelling place of Siva", who at that time fell violently in love with a Kuku. On Siva's wife hearing of it, she kicked the women so violently as to break her neck. The Linga worship was in vogue on the banks of the Manu, but Siva vexed at the increasing wickedness, and at Rajeswar, the 60th king of Tripura in succession shooting an arrow at his Lingum because a son was effused to his prayer, declared he would no more visit Tripura, though his foot marks should remain in the temples; he stated that the Raja should have -no son to succeed him, yet he promised if he offered up a human victim he would be propitious in other respects:

Pratit the sixty-ninth Raja, formed a strict treaty of alliance with the Raja of Kachar on the subject of their boundaries declaring that "the crow would assume a white colour sooner than they should infringe on each other's limits." The neighbouring chiefs fearing the effects of this alliance sowed dissension between them by means of a beautiful women whom they sent to the Raja of Tripura; the Raja of Hirambu became jealous and threatened to slit her hose and cut off her ears, a punishment which is often inflicted by husbands in the present day when they suspect their wives of intriguing. Jujarupha the 74th Raja, invaded Rangamati (Udaypur). Lika the king of Udaipur with a disciplined army of 10,000 men assisted by the Kuki troops who erected stockades fought against the Tripura Raja, but was defeated and Udaipur was made the Capital of Tripura. During the battle the Raja in defiance of a prohibition laid on him in the Lochan çharitra against entering a hut, attacked the king of Udaipur in one, as the latter entrenched his men in' huts, thinking they would not be assailed. This conquest-increased the Raja's power and he proposed to invade Bengal, but had not the means to execute his plans; though his dominions are said to have stretched nearly as far as Amarpur in Burmah. The priests of Sjva in his time were noted for their attention to the shastras, drying their clothes by exposure to the air and then removing them with their own hands. Of the Raja's immediate successors, little is recorded except that some had no sons on account, of their wickedness.

In the reign of the 96th Raja Sangthafah, a Chaudhuri (or principal man of a Hindu corporation) having been plundered in Tripura of Money and jewels, which he was going to present as a tribute to the king of Gaur, laid a complaint before the Gaur monarch who sent a powerful army against Tripura, the king being frightened sued for peace. On this his wife highly indignant abused him for his cowardice, telling him she would fight for him. She said to the soldiers, Your king wants to act the part of a jackal, let those who wish to engage follow me. The troops all agreed, but first she ordered a dinner of buffaloes' and goats' flesh to be prepared for them by their wives, of which they all ate very heartity, the next morning they ate again and then proceeded against the enemy; after a severe conflict they completely routed the forces of the king of Gaur. After the battle, the Raja while reposing on the tusks of an elephant saw a bloody head dancing in the air, which indicated that a lakh of persons had lost their lives.

Go to Top

The queen of Khysangafah the 98th Raja was acquainted with weaving .which produced a beneficial effect on the kingdom. "Her son was so virtuous that he had eighteen sons," wishing to know which of them was destined to succeed him, he one day after fasting directed that the person in charge of the fighting cocks should keep them fasting, while he and his sons were at dinner, on a signal given the thirty cocks were let loose and proceeded to touch the dinner which in consequence became defiled, but the youngest, Ratnafah threw some rice to the cocks, this prevented their coming and touching his food, and so decided that he was the most quick witted. He was sent after his father's death to travel, and went to Gaur, where he resided several years and was treated with great respect; returning with the aid of Mohammadan troops, he conquered the kingdom and beheaded his brother. This occurred probably in A.D.1279, when Togral invaded Tripura. Shortly after he obtained form the king of Gaur 4,000 troops garrisons his chief places and the title of Manik Which the Rajas of Tripura have retained ever since.

 Dharma Manik the 104th Raja traveled as a Fakir through various places; when at Benares his future exaltation was signified by a snake twined round his body with his head reared over his person. This is considered by the Hindus a pre-signification of  future sovereignty they derive the practice from the period when Bhagavan or Krishna slept in the Kshiroda Samudrá on the back of the snake Ananta who covered with his expanded hood. Shortly after this, a deputation from Tripura arrived at Benares, where they found the prince dressed as a fakir; they stated that the Raja having died of small pox, the troops would not allow the youngest son to be chosen in preference to the eldest, and he was appointed Raja, in AD 1407, with the unanimous consent of the people. "He soon sought the road to heaven" by presenting lands to the Brahmans, the title to which were registered on copper plates. After a peaceful reign of thirty two years he died. Under his patronage the first part of the RajMala or history of Tripura kings was composed. His younger son was raised to the throne AD 1439, but was soon murdered by faction and his brother was elected king; the generals having always exercised great influence in the choice of the advice of a priest, who told him leprous limb ought to be cut off, he feigned sickness and being visited by the commanders he had them killed by soldiers who swin wait in his palace. The fate of these generals; in the penalty they suffered for their imperious ad intriguing conduct, resembled that of the Janizzaries of the Turkish empire who were cut off at a stroke in 1826 like them and the Mamalukes of Egypt, these generals appear to have been always more or less involved in political intrigue. The people of Tripura like the Sikhs were a military race and their soldiers often played the same part as the Pretorian guards did in Rome. The Raja subsequently invaded Bengal (some of his troops were taken prisoners by the king of Gaur who ordered them to be trampled to death by field elephants); he took Khandal and plundered it so thoroughly that the inhabitants were, obliged to. clothe themselves in the bark of trees; after this he retained and devoted himself to works of charity, endowing lands for Brahmans giving marriage portions to their sons etc; he dug a large tank at Kumillah called Dharma sagar which occupied him two years; he once gave a feast to the Brahmans and their to cook their own food; he ordered of the Kuki troops to count their men, they did so with a stick  while they were eating, the Kukis were required to by their law to drop eating, but through fear of losing their food they swallowed the food which was in their mouth. They had nick name applied to them ever since on account of this.

 In the city of Thanansi which was the capital of Tripura until the Marauding expedition of the kukis caused it to be removed to some secure place, a white elephant was caught, the king of Tripura claimed it as his property but the raja of Thananasi refused to give it up, on this siege was laid to town which lasted six months.  Raya Kachag the Tripura General, was very much annoyed at this delay, he told his soldier to betake spinning wheel, and in order to stimulate their houses unroofed so as to let in the cold and rain.  One day having caught a guano 12 feet long in to find out the most accessible part of the fort, the soldiers tied a string to the animal body and let it loose, it entered the fort and the string served as a clue to the soldiers who passed into the fort, the guards' being drunk all the males were put to death and the females were taken captive, Raya Kachag then proceeded to the conquest of other countries to the east, he was accused by the Kukis of an attempt to make Samul an independent state, but was acquitted of the Charge. In 1512 A.D. he conquered Chittagong and defeated the Gaur troops who defended it.

Go to Top

Hoseyn Shah sent a strong force from the twelve provinces of Bengal under the command of Gaur Malik, which took the fort of Maharkul; but the Bengal troops were repulsed before another fort. At the suggestion of a eunuch in the Tripura army they made like of Sonamati or red earth across the Gumti and bunding in the waters for three days, they then broke it down - the torrent caused all the Mogul troops to retreat. The Raja Sri Dhyan in order to destroy the enemy offered up a human sacrifice, a black Chandal boy, to Bahbachari (the wife of Siva) on the banks of the Gumti, the head was thrown in among the enemy it is said this so pleased the goddess that at night she came among the Mogul troops and make so loud a noise as to create a panic, and the troops all fled from Chandi Gar. The Raja marched on Chittagan, the enemy fled and he proceeded further in his conquests. Hoseyn Shah sent another army under Hyten Khan to conquer Rangamati, the capital of Tripura, after a battle which lasted a day, the Tripura troops were obliged to retreat; on this the Raja summoned the Dam or witches to know why they did not aid him; the chief which promised to stop the stream with her body, and then to-rise up and let the torrent sweep away the enemy's troops. The historical basis of this myth is probably that the Tripura troops adopted the same practice as was employed by the Dutch against the Spaniards at the siege of Leyden, viz., breaking down embankment so that the hemmed in waters might sweep away the enemy. The enemy fled, when Hyten Khan arrived at the fort of Sogoria he declared, putting his hand on his head, that he who would conquer Tripura ought to bring with him double the troops he had; he was degraded on his return to Gaur.

Sri Dharma having returned to his capital Rangamati, worshipped the fourteen gods with great pomp, and directed that human sacrifices should be offered only triennially, in ancient times one thousand used to be sacrificed every year. He introduced musical teachers from Tirhut and the Tripura people, soon became proficient in knowledge of song. He made an image of Bhubaneswari of gold, weighing a maund, he placed cotton in her nostrils so that at the puja time when the Prana Pratishta ceremony is performed, her breath might blow it away, the people all cried out that a miracle had been performed, though a pipe perforating the body and in contact with the mouth of a priest accounts for the whole, we have many instances of similar tricks in Europe in the Middle ages. The Raja was a great worshipper of the lingam, and erected many temples; on one occasion after the bricklayers finished some temples, they admitted they could make them of better materials, the Raja indignant at their not erecting for him the best temples ordered his attendants to put them' to death. The Raja lived to a good old age, a great worshipper of the lingam; he died of small pox and his wife performed Sati.

His son Deb Manik succeeded and marched to Chittagong; on his return he offered a human sacrifice; while worshipping the fourteen gods in the place of cremation, the officiating Brahman induced -a man to personate Siva and to direct the Raja to kill his eight champions as a sacrifice, which he did, but soon afterwards finding two secured the power in their own hand but it was for a short duration as the people being indignant with the prime minister assassinated him in his palanquin. The pseudo raja and his mother were also killed.

Go to Top

 One thousand Pathan horsemen revolted from the Raja, owing to the arrears of wages not being paid up, they were on their march to Chittagong and attempted to kill the Raja and take Rangamati, but were secured and the greater part were offered up as sacrifice to fourteen gods. The king of Gaur sent 3000 horse and 10000 foot to Chittagong, the war lasted eight months. In one engagement the Tripura troops lost their general, Mohammad Khan the general of the king of Gaur was however taken prisoner confined in an iron cage at the instigation of the Chantai (head priest), was sacrificed to the fourteen gods due to his disrespect to King and fourteen gods. At this time Bijaya Rajä of Tripura marched to Bengal with an army composed of 2600 infantry five thousand horse besides artillery; he went by 5000, boats along the streams Brahmaputra and Lakhi to the Padma at Sonargram, where he spent several days relieving in licentiousness he took into his seraglio many beautiful young women.

Gopinath, the father in-law of king Ananta Manikya killed his on-in-law the king and take the name of Udaimanikya. He kept 240 wives who were so dissolute that they persuaded not only other men but even the prince of Gaur to cohabit with them, as he was on a visit to the Raja of Tripura. When the Raja heard of it he had some of them trampled to death by elephants and others devoured by dogs. As the Pathan were marching on Chittagong, the Tripura troops were sent to attack them, which they did during the night, notwithstanding the unfavourable omens of the flapping of the vultures' wings, falling - of fire from the sky and the barking of woles. The Tripura troops were sent to attack them, which they did during the night, notwithstanding the unfavourable omens of the flapping of the vultures' wings, falling of fire from the sky and the barking of foxes. The Tripura troops were routed with a loss of 40,000 men while the Pathans lost only 5,000. The war lasted for 5 years. Udaya Manik died five years after this from having taken a poisoned pill of quick silver given by a woman. At this period numbers died from famine and from disease the result of it.

Jaya Manik, the son of the late king, succeeded but only nominally, as his uncle Runag Narayan had the real power; as the latter saw that Amar Manik had great influence, he asked him one day to dinner with the intention of intoxicating and then killing him, but a friend at table by cutting the stalk of a pan leaf hinted to him the intention of his enemies, he pretended to be unwell retired from the table and went instantly to the stable but the horse was gone. On this he seized by force the horse of a Khaista and made his escape. He soon rallied his friend's sons around hun and proceeded to attack Runag, he provided each of his soldiers with a piece of cloth 9 feet long to strangle their enemies in the same way as Runag had intended to strangle him. Runag being in a foil sent to his brother for troops but a forged letter was carried by the messenger and the brother was so joyous on receiving it that he prostrated himself on the ground, the messenger on this as instructed, cut his head off and it was thrown into the fort, this so terrified Runag that he ran away to an uninhabited place, hjs enemies found him subsequently in a tank where he had been for two days immersed up to his chin having his head covered with rice pot, the head was cut off by a soldier and carried to Amar Manik who gave him the name of Sahas Narayan. Jaya Manik sent to ask why he had killed his relation, he answered by dispatching troops against the Raja, who fled and was overtaken: his head was cut off.

Amara Manik mounted the throne, he was the brother of Bijaya Manik, his mother was a private individual whom his father fell in love with, struck one day with her beauty as she was drying her hair in the sun. Amara Manik resolved on virtuous deeds by digging tanks; he ordered all the landlords of his kingdom to send coolies for this purpose, accordingly nine Zemindars sent 1300 coolies. The Zemindar of Taraf in Sylhet refused, an army of 22,000 men was sent against him, his son was taken prisoner, put into a cage, and brought to Udayapur. The Raja next (A.D. 1582) marched an army against the Mohammadan commander of Syihet whom he defeated. The order of the troops in battle resembled in figure the sacred bird Gaduda, the two generals in the van represented the beak, the troops on the flanks the wing, and the main army the body; during the fight both parties became fatigued when a suspension of arms took place by mutual agreement; they afterwards resumed the battle, when the Musairnans were defeated. Sylhet from this time (A.D.1514) became Tributary to Tripura. The King next defeated the zamindars of Balaram who refused to submit, on the ground that Amara Manik was not of the Royal line, but he was also defeated. On this occasion a Brahman was accidentally killed, which caused great grief through the kingdom and the king made a private atonement for it. After this he sacked the fine city of Bakla and sold the men as slaves. He then returned to his capital -and performed a grand ceremony on the completion of his tank as also the ceremony of tula or presenting to a Brahman gold of the same weight with hi own body.

Go to Top

While Tripura people were enjoying the seclusion arising from their insulated position, a new enemy, the Muhamedans, made, their appearance and invade4 the country, A.D. 1587. Delay in defending the land was at first caused by the Tripura commander Issah Khan waiting for a lucky day, but at last he obtained the consent of the Viziers to furnish him with troops, and he also won the favour of the Rani who tested his sincerity by giving him the water in which she had washed her body: he drank it. 12,000 troops marched against the Musalmans who fled without coming to action.

The Bhut or devils are said to have been hostile to the Raja at this time, because he cut down Battrees under which they dwelt, their presence having been known by the trees shaking without any natural cause. When the Raja cut down the trees, water gashed out which formed a lake and n order to appease the anger of these Devils he offered up human sacrifices, but in vain, on the banks of the tank. The people were greatly alarmed at this time at the spread of rumours that 125 boys must be immolated to propitiate the devils, and that Udayapur and the whole country would be destroyed by an inundation.

The Raja subsequently declared war against Arrakan, invaded it and took many places, he was repulsed by a junction of the Mug troops with the Portuguese, but he regained his ground; the Raja sent a letter to the king of Arrakan, challenging his troops to battle, the latter replied that he would postpone fighting till next year, the Raja concurred in this and both agreed to fight before the celebration of the Durga puja, in order that the slain might be offered as sacrifices to Durga.

The Tripura troops accordingly retired into winter quarters. But Sekandar Shah the king of the Mugs did not wait for the Durga. Puja, he invaded and took Chittagan. The Raja of Tripura sent an army under the command of his three Sons to repel them. On this the king of the Mugs wished to make peace and sent the brothers a crown of ivory as a present, a dispute arose among them as to who should possess t, and one who lost it abused the Mugs. This led to a battle, the Mugs were defended by stockades, and on Jagier, one of the Raja's sons, attempting to mount a wounded elephant, the animal maddened with pain, seeing his ornaments seized him and trampled him to death: the Tripura soldiers fled; another battle- was fought which was gained by the Mugs in consequence of a disagreement between two thousand Pathan cavalry. The Mugs marched on to Udaipur which they plundered, A.D.1587, the Raja fled to the forests of Dum Ghat. In consequence of these misfortunes, as well as from bad omens and unpleasant dreams, the Raja resolved to destroy himself, having bathed in "the sacred Manu river", he swallowed a quantity of opium and died, in the course of a day.

He was succeeded by his son Rajadhara Manik, the Rani his mother performed Sati "decorating her person with all her ornaments and directing Rama's name to be written on her body." Rajadhar in opposition to the wish of his nobles gave away much land ,to the Brahmans stating that in his old age be might not be able to do so; be was an enthusiastic Vishnuvite, employing eight Singers to chant the praises of Hari day and night. He did not perform the most, trivial action without the order of his head Priest. He erected 1a temple to Vishnu and surrounded it with a flower and fruit garden, in which be worshipped every day. Adin Tagrul King of Gaur thinking him peaceable, sent troops to plunder the country, but they were repulsed. The Raja one day absorbed in meditation, while walking on the banks of the river Gumti and drinking the water, in which the image of Vishnu had been washed, fell into the river and was drowned.

Jasadhara Manik succeeded him, A.D.1591. Hoseyn Shah king of the Mugs, continued at war with him foi 21 years, and the Muhammadans by the direction of Jahangir, who wanted horses and elephants, invaded Tripura; the moguls proved victorious headed by the Nawab Fateh Jung, the capital was taken and the Raja was sent a prisoner to Delhi; he was allowed lo go on pilgrimage to Benares, Allahabad, Mathura, Brindaban, and was offered his throne again on condition of paying tribute in horses and elephants, but he declined, saying, his country was too much impoverished by the devastations of the soldiers to allow of being taxed. He died at Brindavan of fever in the seventy-second year of his age "while meditating on the Excellency of Vishnu," his body was burnt with costly perfumes.

Go to Top

In the meanwhile the Mogul troops were guilty of great atrocities in Tripura, plundering the temples and robbing the inhabitants, they even drained the tanks in search of treasure; they continued this course for two years and a half, until a drea1ful plague caused them to leave the, country. Kalyan Manik was raised by the nobles to the throne, in the year 1625; he coined mohurs in Siva's name and his own, he made a tour of his dominions distributing money and land to the Brahmans whom he held in such reverence that he made them eat before him, he was also kind to the poor and equitable to his subjects. The emperor of Delhi finding he refused to pay tribute directed the nawab of Murshidabad to send an army against Tripura, the troops carried with them a famous cannon made of leather, but they were defeated. The Raja then applied himself to devotional objects, he observed the ceremony of tula, gave presents of horses, elephants etc. to the Brahmans  and particularly to those who came from Mathra, Benares, and Orissa, he paid the traveling expenses of those Brahmans who were desirous of making a pilgrimage. He died AD. 1659.

We make a passing remark that though Bakhtiyar Khilji the conqueror of Nadiya, invaded Assam, he found the people not the feeble race he had met with at Nadiya, and returned broken hearted from defeat. It was not until a late period the Musalmans entered Tripura led by a desire to obtain elephants which they wanted for military purposes.

AD. 1659, Govinda Manik mounted the Tripura throne, his wife was a devotee who dug a tank called after her own name, she had also coined mohurs in which her own name was on one side, that of the Raja and Siva's on the other. The step brother of the Raja, having obtained assistance from the Nawab of Murshidahad attempted to gain possession of the throne; the Raja being peaceable man and not wishing to fight with a relative, fled to the king of Arakan, who gave him a hospitable reception and Chatira Manik obtained possession of the throne, but he died. of small-pox aftcr a reign of seven years.

While Govinda was at Arakan, Shah Suja, the son of the emperor Shah Jehan, came there, having been defeated by his brother and disgusted with the world, he marched through Tripura to Arakan in order to embark thence for Mecca where he intended to end his days, he was received very kindly by the ex-Raja of Tripura who gave him a Nimcha sword as a mark of his gratitude. But the king of Arakan pretending that Shah Suja had conspired against his life by sending soldiers in disguise into his palace in dulis, in order to assassinate him, resolved to kill him, but being a Buddhist he could not shed blood except in battle, he had him therefore bound and put into a boat on the river, a plank being taken out of the boat it sank with Suja fast bound in her, the king satisfying his conscience by drowning him, and not shedding his blood; the consort of Suja plunged a dagger into her bosom rather than submit to the embraces of the Raja of Arakan; while her daughters poisoned themselves.

The usurper having died, Govinda was again elected to the throne; he sold the sword given him by Shah Suja and devoted the money to objects of utility; he gave presents of salt to all the people of Udaipur, cultivated the wastes of Maharkur, and granted land at a reduced rent to the Brahmans, confirming his donation on copper plates; he died much regretted and was succeeded by his son. During his reign intrigues were made with the Nawab of Murshidabad to dispossess him of the throne- but in vain.

Ratna Manik-II succeeded when only five years old, when he grew up he married one hundred, and twenty wives; the heir apparent was guilty of great cruelty, on which account Shaista Khan, Nawab of Bengal, took him prisoner and sent him to Delhi.

Narrendra Manik usurped the throne through his influence with the Nawab of Dacca, but his deceit being found out, the Nawab deposed him and re-instated the former Raja; but. he did not hold it long, as his brother by intriguing with the Nawab of Murshidabad gained the throne; his ministers telling him that as two tigers can not remain in the same jungle, nor one wife with two husbands, so neither could he remain with the old Raja; he therefore had him strangled, but after that period he never enjoyed peace, being haunted with dreams of some person strangling him in the same way as he had strangled his brother, he gradually wasted away in flesh.

Dharma Manik succeeded. The Nawab of Murshidabad having deprived him of a large portion of territory on the plains, locating mogul zamindars in them and the mogul troops at Udaipur proving a great annoyance, the Raja resolved to destroy them he invited them to dinner and intoxicating them with strong liquor, he had the palace gates shut when all were killed with the exception of a few who climbed the walls and so escaped.

Go to Top

At this time, A.D. 1739, Jagatram the son of Satra Manik, who had long lived and exile from his country at Dacca induced the Nawab of Dacca to send an army to enforce his claims to the throne of Tripura, he promising to pay up the arrears of tribute; the Muhammadan troops however were defeated, but in a second invasion the Raja fled and Jagatram was made Raja, a large body of Moslem troops were stationed in Tripura, its name was changed to Raushanabad, or City of light; as it was an essential part of the Moslem polity wherever they gained an ascendancy to alter the names of persons and places, like the Russians with their Panslavism, they aimed at making the Arabic language as well as religion predominant wherever the Crescent shone. In a similar way the Muhammadan in India made a knowledge of Persian a sine qua non as a qualification for office, their great policy was to denationalize the Hindus by discouraging the study of the Sanskrit and vernacular languages,- but after the operation of this system for six centuries in Bengal, what has been the result? When the glorious measure of Lord W. Bentinck was promulgated, directing the Vernaculars to be the language of the Courts, Persian found few advocates except in interested Amlas and Moulavis who realised their profits by mystifying the people through the veil of a foreign language. Persian as a branch of education is almost extinct in Bengal except in a few Madrassas.

By ingratiating himself with Jagat Seth the wealthy banker of Murshidabad, the old Raja regained his throne, and reigned for eighteen years subsequently; he had the Mahabharata and other old hooks translated for him. His son succeeded him and refusing to pay tribute was taken prisoner, but to avoid further indignities he poisoned himself. Jaya Manik succeeded, hut the eldest son of the late Raja, who had long resided at Murshidabad, through his influence with the Nawab gained the throne, promising to pay up the arrears of tribute; but he did not remain long on it, an intrigue was formed against him at the Court of Murshidahad and Indra Manik was placed on the throne by the Nawab, an intrigue was formed against him also at the Nawab's Court, but he went in person to the Nawab promising to pay the arrears; he obtained a certificate of his proficiency in the Persian language. He died after a reign of four years.

Bijaya Manik was appointed Raja by the Nawab with a salary of 12,000 rupees monthly, on the stipulation of sending all the revenue to Murshidabad- but falling into arrears he was sent prisoner to the Capital, where he died in confinement some time after. Samsher Jung obtained the government and, agreed to pay the revenue without any delay, but the people not recognising him as the legitimate heir, he then installed as Raja one of the Tripura family who resided at Sonargan, but they still refused; a battle, was fought in which Samsher was victorious; he governed for twelve years with such cruelty and caused such loud complaints to be raised on account of his atrocities that the Nawab had him seized and blown from the mouth, of a gun. Kishen Manik succeeded. The Dewan of the Nawab collected all his forces at Chittagan and advanced against the Raja of Tripura who was defeated at Kasba. He soon after died.

After an interregnum of five years in consequence of disputes as to who should succeed, in which the Kukis were called in by one party as combatants, Durga Manik the Jubaraja, received from the English Government the Khelat as Raja in 1808; after four years he proceeded with his family on a pilgrimage to Benares, Prayag; while on his way to Gaya he died near Patna and was burned on the banks of the Ganges. His late rival Ram Ganga was appointed by the English Government as Raja according to the Tripura laws of succession, though several of his rivals disputed his title by force, the Kyphangs aided one party, but the English soon decided the difficulty. The Raja sent presents to the Governor General, and on the occasion of his installation gave a magnificent feast; he applied himself then to religious duties, having built a temple at Brindaban at an expense of 24,000 rupees. He erected a temple to Siva at Ganga Sagar, cleared out the tank there and gave the rent of several villages for supplying the fourteen gods on that island with boiled rice; the Kukis revolted but were subdued, and consented to pay their usual tribute of coins and ivory. In 1822, the people of Harimba (Kachhar) submitted to the English Government, having been previously very much oppressed by the Burmese.

Go to Top

In 1765, Tripura came under British rule, the income of the Raja then, was about 3,00,000 rupees. Krishna Manik was made Raja by the aid of the English, having succeeded to Samsher Khan noted for his cruelty and tyranny. He performed the ceremony of tula and gave away large sums of money, particularly to the pandits of Nadia though he could not be as liberal as before, English Collectors being appointed in the country. Krishna Manik died after at reign of 23 years, there being no Jubaraja, his queen ruled the country for sometime, but the people did not submit willingly to her sway; she then petitioned government who confirmed her request that Rajendra Manik, her nephew, might succeed, which he did A.D. 1785. Cotton was cultivated in Tripura in his time, and an invasion of the Mugs was repelled, the revenue collected by the English amounted to 1,39,000 rupees. The Kukis were also punished severely by the Raja for an inroad made on the country. Rajendra married the daughter of the Raja o Manipur; he made an image of eight metals which he placed in the sanctuary of l3rindaban; he became a great devotee, spending four months In prayer to the gods without speaking to any one, he then abdicated the throne and assumed the habit of a Sanyasi; he died soon after, having reigned 19 years.

In 1826, the Raja died, when dying he sent for his spiritual guide and put his foot on his head, an eclipse of the moon occurred at the same time which was considered a sure sign that the Raja would go to heaven; when he became insensible a Salagram was placed on. his breast. On the occasion of his Sraddha 18,000 rupees were distributed among the poor, which were collected by subscription, as the Raja's brother was too much in debt to afford it. The late Raja reigned eleven years, he was accomplished in the Persian language, and also serving and firing a gun quickly; his bones were sent to Vrindavan. The Jubaraja Kasi Chandra was nominated by the English Government his successor, who sent to him a Khelat of honour consisting of the following articles,- a short sleeved jacket, a large dress, turban, a cloth band to encircle the head, gold band for the head.

The Raja was noted for his dissipated habits and his respect for the Brahmans; he died in 1829 after a short reign of three years. his Rani on hearing of his death, committed suicide. The portion of this history, relating to the English period, contains little matters of interest beyond the squabbles between Rajas and Collectors, expensive marriages and feasts given to Brahmans by zemindars as deeply involved in debt as some of our Chowringhee magnates.

There are a few points omitted in this history which are rather singular- no mention is made of Dacca though it carried on a trade with the Romans, and its Muslins were used by the ladies of Rome in the days of the Caesars. No reference is made to Buddhism, though it was at one period the predominant religion in Bengal, and extended its sway from the Indian Ocean to the frontiers of China: this may be accounted for, perhaps, on the ground that those chronicles were composed by Brahmans who may have adopted in them their usual policy of taking little notice of their religious opponents, passing over their history in contemption silence.

Go to Top

BY E. F SANDYS, 1915 AD, Commissioner of Chakla Roshanabad


        The Origin and history of the Tripura Raj is given in the Rajamala (literally meaning the 'Garland of Kings') or Chronicles of Tripura. It is the oldest specimen of Bengali composition extant. It is in verse and was in a detached form, but was collected and written in sequence by the Brahmin officials of Rajah Dharma Manikya, the 102nd Rajah, who ascended the Tripura Royal Throne of Tripura in 1407 A. D. His successors have continued the task year by year until we have now one of the oldest continuous chronicles of any Indian reigning family.

Making every allowance for poetic fancy, Brahminical love of the supernatural and courtly flattery, we have a written record stretching back to the Aryans in the Epic period or 3,000 years ago when Druhya, the second son of the Samrat or Emperor Yayati, a Kshatriya of the Lunar Race, was exiled, together with his elder and two younger brothers, as is related in the, Mahabharata (in chapter LXXXIV of the Shambhava Parva of the Adi Parva), wherein it is described how the aged Emperor called upon his five sons, each in order of his age, to take upon himself his old age and give him his youth for a time. The eldest Yadu, then Druhya, followed by his two next brothers, Turvasu and Anu, all refused, and were cursed by their father with various penalties and sent into exile.

The curse upon Druhya is given in the 20th, 21st and 22nd verses of the above mentioned chapter. It is to the effect, that, he should go into exile and spend his days in a pathless country, where the only means of conveyance were its or floats. Consequently, Druhya retired with his companions to the eastern parts of the Empire, where the floods the Brahmaputra submerged the surrounding country and neceskitateçl water carriage, Druhya's descendant Tripura settled on the banks of the Kpilà a confluent of the Brahmaputra and founded the city of Tribeg (literally meaning the place where three streams meet) as the capital of his kingdom, which became known thenceforth to this day as Tripura, after its founder, who lived over 3,000 years ago.

According to the legend Tripur was the grandson of Chitrayudh, who had attended the Rajasya or Imperial Assemblage of the  Sarmrat Yudhisthira and had been granted  the Svetachattra or white royal umbrella as his insignia by the Emperor, as already mentioned. Tripura is said to have been a passionate, tyrannical ruler, who neglected the due worship of Siva. His subjects were in great distress and appealed to the Raja of Hidamba (Cachar), which in those days was in the valley of the Brahmaputra, from which its Raja and people were driven by the oppression of more powerful princes. Under the ancestors of their Raja Govinda Deo who ruled in the first half of the 13th Century they migrated to the valley of the Barak which now forms the district of Cachar. The Raja of Hidamba could not or would not render the Tripuras any assistance and, as Tripura became more and more tyrannical and godless, they cried to Siva, who, when sufficiently provoked by Tripur shooting arrows at the Lingam, the emblem of Siva, and thus bringing his worship into contempt, slew Tripur in wrath. Tripur had left no son to succeed him but his Widow was pregnant. Great was the grief of the innocent and disconsolate Rani and her entreaties, joined to the prayers of the Tripuras allayed the warth of Siva, who promised, that, the Rani's unborn child should be a son, who would be the recipient of his godship's favor. And, as a sign, he should have the mark of the third or central eye, a distinguishing feature of Siva on his forehead. In due course Tripura's widowed Rani gave birth to a posthumous son, who bore Siva's promised token and was accordingly named Trilochana (Three-eyed) in compliment to the god, one of whose names is Tryambaka, having the same meaning. So that Tripur founded his Capital Tribeg and was succeeded by his son Trilochana, trio of trinities. Ancient history is usually veiled in myths and related in legends but facts in almost every case form the foundation of these stories.

TRILOCHANA was placed on the throne amidst the rejoicings of the people and was distinguished for wisdom and piety at an early age. Neighbouring Chiefs paid him homage and the Raja of Hidamba (Cachar) offered Trilochana his daughter in marriage. The nuptials were celebrated with great rejoicings and twelve sons were born of this marriage.

Go to Top

On the death of the sonless Raja of Hidamba a dispute arose as to which of his grandsons were to occupy the vacant throne. To solve the difficulty peacefully Trilochana sent messengers to the vnerated shrine of Siva on Sagar Island, to request the Priests to come and solve the difficulty. The name 'Sagar' means the Sea, and situated, as it is, at the point where the holy Ganges once mingled it waters with the Bay, the Island is regarded as peculiarly sacred. Thousands of pilgrims from all parts of India visit it annually to wash away their sins in the bengali month of Magh. In ancient times there were tin Sagar Island a famous Tol or Sanskrit Collegeo for Pandits and a Shrine of Siva, erected by the Rajas of Tripura when their dominions spread far more Westwards than they do now. The temple and tol were deluviated in 1842. The Dandis, on Siva's Priests were called, remembering the persecutions of the godless Tripur, were afraid to send any Pandits to Tripura, until they learnt of Trilochana's piety and peaceful habit. So some of the Dandis returned with the messengers, settled the question of the succession to Hidamba and returned rejoicing with many gifts from Trilochana.

The cult of Siva still continues to be the State religion of Tripura but Rajas are now personally Vishnavas, probably since Chaitanya's time, 1485 as already mentioned. It should be noted, that when Siva promised Tripur's widow Rani a son, he stipulated, that, Surya and Chandra or the Sun and the Moon, as well as the Chaudadevtas should be duly and regularly worshipped. These gods are to this day so worshipped and their temples and priest duly provided for by the State.

Though the limits of the Tripura Raj have been altered, enlarged and reduced, as is only natural through the 30 centuries of storm and stress of the Hindu, Mohomedan and British dominations in India, yet this ancient Aryan Raj still survives in its present diminished territories, now bounded by the districts of Sylhet and Cachar on the north, Lushailand on the cast, the Hill Tracts and Chittagong on the south, and by the districts of Noakhali and Tippera on the west. But so late ts the 16th century the Raj stretched from Kamrup in Assam to the north up to Arakan in the south, from the Empire of Burma on the east to the then densely populated Sunderbans on the west. The capital was gradually moved from Tribeg, on the Brahmaputra on the north, to Udaipur, on the Gumti on the south, and then back again to Agartala, on the Haura where the present Raja now has his seat of Government. The early history of Cachar or Hadimba as it was anciently called, is obscure. It would appear that it formerly belonged to the kingdom of Tripura. It is, however, certain that the last native king of Cachar was the descendant of a line of princes who originally came from the Assam Valley. The Cachar Kings were forced, by the aggressions of the Ahoms on the north and to the Angami Nagas on the south, to remove and take up their abode on the Mahar river. While settled there, about the beginning or middle of the 17th century, the Cachari king married a daughter of the Tripura Raja and received the valley of Cachar as her dowry, and the capital was transferred to Kampur between 1700 and 1750. Govinda Chandra, the last Rajah of Cachar, was assassinated in 1830 and, as he left no heir natural or adopted, the country was annexed by the British Government on the 14th August 1832 - (Aitchinson's Treatise, p. 213)

Go to Top