JANASHIKSHA SAMITI: The fourth decade of the last century saw the 2nd
world war, which had a large scale impact all over the world in all sphere of
life of an individual. It had created a revolutionary impact in
Tripura and in the minds of Tripuri people. The Tripuri people were reluctant
to take education, rather would prefer to do agriculture and jhum cultivation.
The parents would prefer to utilize their children in house hold work then
sending in the school. Last king Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya was very keen to
spread the education among the Tripuri people, he engaged retired British army
officer, Mr. D.A.W. Brown, as in charge of Education in Tripura. He was also
very much proactive for the spread of education of Tripuri people. During this time some
educated Tripuri youths took the spread of education among Tripuri as mission.
Fore runner among them
were Sh. Dasarath Deb (Barma), Sh, Hemanta Debbarma, and Sh. Sudhnwa Debbarma, who formed an
organization for the purpose. The organization was formed in the year 1945 AD,
1355 TE, 11th Paush, and named TRIPUR JANASIKHSHA SAMITI. It
established to over 480 non governmental primary schools, recruited volunteers
teachers, school rooms solely donated or built by community. Mr. Brown was
supportive for the said cause, and he helped to established the schools.
SANGHA: This organization was formed in the year 1946 AD, at the instances of
his highness Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya to spread the nationalism among Tripuri
people. Some of the founding members were prince Durjay Kishore Debbarman,
Brajalal kishore Debbarma, Thakur Jitendra Mohan Debbarma, Lalit Mohan Debbarma
MANDAL: This organization was formed by many renowned Tripuri youths like Prabhat Ray, Birchandra Debbarma, Banshi Thakur, Dhiren Krishna Debbarma and et
al. They were very much keen on making Tripuri people a developed race, it
ideology was fully based on nationalism, promoting Tripuri people heritages.
RAJYA GANAMUKTI PARISHAD: This organization was formed against the torture of
bureaucrats and police of Tripura, they asked the right to livelihood. The aim
of the organization was to make people aware of their right, to live with
dignity. Dasarath Debbarma, was its founding president, Aghur Debbarma was its
General Secretary, besides Sudhanwa Debbarma and Hemanta Debbarma. This
organization later became part for communist party, and still in existence as an
of Tripura between accession to India, 15th November 1949 to general
election of India, 1952 was a dark period. There was literally law less ness and
rule of torture prevailed on the people of Tripuri. Communist party took this
opportunity of resistance by Tripuri people and sided with them to oppose the
congress govt of center with were labeled as anti Tripuri interest party. During
this time Hindu Bengali refugees of east Pakistan were rehabilitated in large
scale in Tripura, which led to upside down change in population of Tripura. The
original native Tripuri people were over night reduced to minority in their own
land of fore fathers, who ruled this mythological historic land for five
TRIPURA UPAJATI JUVA SAMITY: This change in
racial ratio in Tripura had created resentments among the educated Tripuri
youths. It had led them to introspect, to analyze and interpret the consequences
and impact of refugees. The product of People Education Movement are then
educated Tripuri youths, they have visualized the partition and refugee as bane
for them, it had created a identity crisis and extinction of the thousand year
old history, glory and heritages. Some of them then formed Tripuri people youth
organization named TRIPURA UPAJATI JUVA SAMITY, its founder were Shyama Charan
Tripura, Harinath Debbarma, and many more. The aim and objective was to restore
the glory of Tripuri people, to get the illegally alienated lands back, to get
education in mother tongue Tripuri, the get autonomous district for self rule
TRIPURA NATIONAL VOLUNTEERS: TNV was formed in
the eighties by ultra nationalist Bijoy Kumar Rangkhal and some of his follower
like Chuni Kaloi, Binanda Jamatia et el. Their main aim was to return back the
illegal immigrants and refugees of east Pakistan. They fought armed struggle to
get this aim met but latter surrendered under the agreement with central
government under Rajiv Gandhi.
ALL TRIPURA TIGERS FORCE: ATTF an ultra
nationalist radical group demanding session and full independence of Tripura, a
pre-merger condition of Tripura kingdom. It founders were Lalit Debbarma, Ranjit
Debbarma etc, a section of them came into negotiation with Tripura government
and surrendered before the government. But one section of them remained
unconvinced and still active in most of the parts of Tripura as terrorist groups
and attacking paramilitary forces and collecting ransom from public for their
sustenance. The organization is banned as terrorist group in India and Tripura.
NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT OF TRIPURA: NLFT
is another ultra nationalist terrorist organization demanding secession from
India. Its founders are Biswamohan Debbarma, Mantu Koloi, Nayan Basi jamatia
Etc. The group got divided, because of involvement in religious conversion from
the indigenous faith to foreign faith. One faction came into negotiation with
state government of Tripura, and surrendered. The non surrendered faction is
still active but its influence have decreased substantially. The organization is
banned as terrorist by Government of India.
GOVERNMENT & TNV ACCOERD 1988
MEMORANDUM OF SETTELEMENT
India have been making efforts to bring about a satisfactory settlement to the
problem of tribals in Tripura by restoring peace and harmony in areas where
disturbed conditions prevailed.
The Tripura National
Volunteer (TNV), through their letter dated the 4 th May, 1988, addressed to the
government of Tripura and signed by Shri Bijoy Kumar Hrangkhawl, stated that
keeping in view the Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi's policy of Solution of
problems through negotiations, TNV have decided to abjure violence, give up
secessionist demand and to hold negotiations for a peaceful solution to all the
problems of Tripura within the Constitution of India. The TNV also furnished its
by-laws which conform to the laws in force. On the basis a series of discussions
were held with representatives of TNV.
Arms and Ammunition and ending of underground Activities by TNV:
The TNV undertakes to take
all necessary steps to end under ground activities and to bring out all
under-grounds of the TNV with their arms, ammunition and equipment within one
month of signing of this Memorandum. Details for giving effect to this part of
settlement will be worked out and implemented under the supervision of the
Central Government. The TNV further undertakes to ensure that it does not resort
to violence and to help in restoration of amity between different sections of
support any extremist Organization by TNV
The TNV undertakes not to
extend any support to any other extremist groups by way of training. Supply of
arms or providing protection or in any other manner.
Rehabilitation of Undergrounds:
Suitable steps will be
taken for the resettlement and rehabilitation of TNV undergrounds coming over
ground in the light of the schemes drawn up for the purpose.
Stringent measures will be
taken to prevent infiltration from across the border by strengthening
arrangement on the border and construction of roads along vulnerable sections
for better patrolling and vigil. Vigorous action against such in filtrators
would also be taken under the law.
of Seats in the Tripura Legislative Assembly for Tribals:
With a view to satisfy the
aspirations of tribals of Tripura for a greater share, legislative measures will
be taken including those for the enactment of the Bill for the amendment of the
Constitution. The Constitutional amendments shall provide that notwithstanding
anything contained in the Constitution. the number of seats in the Legislative
Assembly of Tripura reserved for Scheduled Tribes shall be such number of seats
as bears to the total number of seats, a proportion not less than the number, as
on the date of coming into force of the Constitutional amendment, of members
belonging to the Scheduled Tribes in the existing Assembly bears to the total
number of seats in the existing Assembly. The Representation of the People Act,
1950 shall also be amended to provide for reservation of 20 seats for the
Scheduled Tribes in the Assembly of Tripura. However, the amendments shall not
effect any representation in the existing Assembly of Tripura until its
of alienated lands to tribals:
It was agreed that
following measures will be taken: (i) Review of rejected applications for
restoration of tribal land under the Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms Act,
1960 (ii) Effective implementation of the law for restoration: (iii) Stringent
measures to prevent fresh alienation; (iv) Provision of soil conservation
measures and irrigation facilities in tribal areas and (v) Strengthening of the
Agricultural Credit System so as to provide for an appropriate agency with
adequate tribal representation to ensure easy facilities for both consumption
and operational credit to tribals.
the Boundaries of Autonomous District Council Area:
Tribal majority villages,
which now fall outside the Autonomous District Council area and are contiguous
to such area will be included in the Autonomous District and similarly placed
non-tribal majority villages presently in the Autonomous District and on the
periphery may be excluded.
Long Term Economic Development of Tripura:
Maximum emphasis will be
placed on extensive and intensive skill-formation of the tribal youth of Tripura
so as to improve their prospects of employment including self employment in
various trades such as motor workshops, pharmacies, electronic goods, carpentry,
tailoring, stationary weaving, rice and oil mills, general stores, fishery,
poultry, piggery, horticulture, handloom and handicrafts.
recruitment drives will be organized for police and par-military forces in
Tripura with a view to enlisting as many tribal youth as possible.
All India Radio will
increase the duration and content of their programmers in tribal languages or
dialects of Tripura. Additional transmitting stations will be provided for
coverage even of the remote areas of the State.
The demands relating to
self employment of tribals, issue of permits for vehicles to tribals for
commercial purposes, visits of tribal men and women to such places in the
country as may be off value for the viewpoint of inspiration, training and
experience in relevant fields will be considered sympathetically by the
At least 2,500 jhumia
families will be rehabilitated in 5 centers or more in accordance with model
schemes based on agriculture, horticulture ding vegetable growing, anima
husbandry, fisheries and plantations with views to weaning them away from jhum
cultivation. The scheme would also provide for housing assistance.
In the Autonomous District
Council area of Tripura, rice, salt and kerosene oil will be given at subsidized
rates during lean months for a period of three years.
Conscious efforts will be
made for effective implementation of the provisions of the Sixth Schedule to the
Constitution in so far as it relates to Tripura.
Tripura State Government and ATTF accord 1993
MEMORANDUM OF SETTLEMENT
This indenture made on this
the twenty-third day of August. One thousand nine hundred and ninety three
BETWEEN the All Tripura Tribal Force (hereinafter referred to as the ATTF) on
the ONE PART and the Governor of Tripura (which expression shall unless excluded
by or repugnant to the subject or context include his successors in office and
assigns) on the OTHER PART
Where as the government of Tripura have been
making concerned efforts to bring about an effective settlement of the problems
of the tribal who are presently minority in Tripura an attempt have been made on
a continuing basis to usher in peace and harmony in areas in which disturbed
conditions have prevailed for long.
Whereas All Tripura Tribal Force have given a
clear indication that they would like to give up the path of armed struggle and
would like to resume a normal life and they have decided to abandon the path of
violence and to seek solutions to their problems within the framework of the
Constitution of India and, therefore, they have responded positively to the
appeals made by the Government of Tripura to join the mainstream and to help in
the cause of building a prosperous Tripura
Whereas on a series of discussions between
the parties here to and based on such discussions it has been mutually agreed by
and between the parties hereto that the FIRST ATTF shall give up the path of
violence and surrender to the Other Party the Government of Tripura along with
all their arms and ammunition ending their under ground activities and the
Governor of Tripura will provide some economic package and financial benefits
and facilities hereafter provided
(B). Action is taken against foreign
Nationals: - Action would be taken in respect of sending back all Bangladesh
foreign nationals who have come to Tripura after 25 th March, 1971 and are not
in possession of valid documents authorizing their presence in Tripura.
Restoration of alienated land: - Effective steps would be taken in items
of the Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reform Act, 1960 for restoring land
alienated by tribal.
Inclusion of Tribal majority villages in ADC Area: - Tribal majority
villages which now fall outside the ADC area and are contiguous to the ADC area,
would be included in the TTAADC.
Introduction of Inner line permit: - The case for introduction of an
Inner-Line Permit system would be taken up with the government of India . The
State Government will insist on the Movement of India to approve this demand.
Village Police Force for the ADC: - The constitution of village Police
Force under the administrative control of the TTAADC is acceptable in principle
to the State Government and the State Government will take up with the
Government of India for Constitutional amendment, if required, to fulfil this
Increase in the Number of Seats for Sch. Tribes Candidates in the TTAADC:
- The demand for more representation of Scheduled Tribe Members in the
Autonomous District Council is acceptable to the State Government in principle
and efforts will be made amendment of the rules which deal with reservation of
seats for Scheduled Tribe in order to increase the numbers of reserve seats to
Setting up of a Cultural Development center: - Upajati Sanskritik vikas
kendra (Tribal Cultural development Centre) with arrangements for training would
be set up in the TTAADC area.
Improvement of KOKBORAK and other Tribal Languages: - A Bhasha commission
would be setup for the improvement of Kok Borok and other Tribal Languages,
Steps Would also taken for the introduction in phase of Kok Borak at
Progressively higher levels of education.
Preservation of Ujjanyanta Palace as historical Monument and shifting of
Tripura Legislative Assembly. Respecting sentiments of all sections of the
population, especially the tribal of Tripura, steps would be taken to contract a
separate building for The Tripura Legislative Assembly and to retain the
Ujjanyanta Palace as a Historical Monument .
Renaming of the Village Rivers , Etc.: - Steps would be initiated to
ensure that all villages and rivers which earlier had tribal names and which
were subsequently renamed, are given their original tribal names.
Jhumia re-settlement: - Area based for resettlement of jhumias would
continue to be implemented in order to provide for a strong economic base for
the jhumias of Tripura.
Industrial Development in TTAADC: - All necessary steps would be taken to
ensure the promotion of industrial activities in TTAADC areas.
Secured accommodation and escort for Office Bearers: - The President,
Vice-President, Convener and 4 (four) other members of the Executive Committee
of the ATTF will be given secured accommodation subsequent to their surrender
and they will also be given personal security guard for such period as may be
decided by the Government. They will be provided with Police escort during their
movement outside Agartala as and when required.
Housing Facilities: - After surrender, ATTF personal shall be provided
with a house with GCI sheet raffling with a floor area of 220 square feet for
their accommodation as early as possible and the ATTF personal shall take part
in constructing such houses, provided that the cost of each house shall not
exceed Rs. 20,000/= (Rupees Twenty thousand.
Drinking water Facilities:- Steps would be taken by the State Government
to Provide Drinking water in the resettlement colonied set up by the Government
to resettle the ATTF personal.
Government Employment or Economic Package: - All ATTF personal, on their
surrender, will be provided with government employment according to their
qualification or economic facilities as provided here in and till such
Government imployment or economic facilities are given, each surrendered ATTF
personal shall be paid subsistence allowance at the rate of Rs.500/= (Rupees
five hundred) only per month, so, however, that the subsistence allowance shall
not be paid beyond a period of 10 (ten) months.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF THE ATTF is being represented by
(I) shri Lalit
(2) Shri Ramcndra Reang, Vice-President, ATTF,
(3) Shri Rabindra Reang, General Secretary, ATTF,
(4) Shri Dilip Debbarma, Treasurer, ATTF,
and (6) Shri Santaram Reang Accountant, ATTF, and the Governor of Tripura being
represented by Sri M. Damodaran, Chief Secretary to the Government of Tripura,
have hereunto set their hand on the date, month and year as afore-mentioned.
on behalf of First
Party ATTF by-
Sd/-Shri Lalit Deb barma)
2. Sd/-Shri Ramendra Reang
Vice President, ATTF.
3. Sd/-Shri Rabindra Reang
General Secretary, ATTF.
4. Sd/-Shri Dilip Deb Barma
5. S/d-Shri Santaram Reang
Accountant, ATTF .
for and behalf of the Governor of Tripura
Government of Tripura
In the presence of:-
(Shri Dasarath Deb)
Chief Minister, Tripura
(Shri Bidyanath Majumder)
Minister, PWD etc. Deptt, Tripura