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Tripura, the land of History and Legends

The Origin of Hindu Religion

Birth of Hindu religion:
 There are different opinions regarding of the origin of Hindu religion. There is literally an intellectual tug of war among the scholars’ one in favour of Dravidian origin and other of Aryan origin. There is hardly any third opinion on that though a minority section scholars feel that it  originated from Indigenous Tribal of India. This is because no great man from tribals origin of India  had ever tried to write or did original research to claim that Hindu religion is born out of their tribal indigenous faith.

Origin of the word Hindu

First of all the word Hindu it self had its root to non-Aryan Kirata or Borok origin with Sindu River which is not originally an Indo-aryan word. Sindu is also called as Sapta sindu means collection of seven rivers. Where as it has no literal meaning to seven any how. On the other hand Sini-di means seven rivers in Boro/Tripuri language Sini=seven and Di/Ti=river or water. so etymologically the word changed from Sinidi> Sindi>Sindu.  and it is fact that Indus river had seven tributaries. This Sindu became Hindu among Persians/ Iranian and to Indus among Greeks and English, so te word itself is not at all Indo-Aryan origin.

Secondly the religion of India in general was never known as Hindu till a century and half before. In no text of so called Hindu scriptures, the religion had been named or identified as Hinduism. In fact the religious identity of Indians as Hindu had been defined since 1830 AD by  Denzil Ibbetson.


Thirdly According to the law any Indian who do not follow any other religion is Hindu as per the Hindu marriage act. Other religion means Muslim, Christians. Accordingly even Buddhist,, Jain, Sikhs and any other Indigenous religious practice is considered as Hinduism unless proved otherwise.

Fourthly The Honorable supreme court of India had defined Hinduism as way of life rather than a religion. So in that sense the life style of Indian people in general is Hinduism irrespective of his religious affiliation.

Fifthly the God and Goddess of Kirata or the Indo-mongoloid in general and the goddess of North east and Nepal are all absorbed in the main stream Hinduism, whether it is the Kamakhya of Assam, Tripura Sundari of Udaipur and Fourteens gods temple of Agartala of Tripura or the Pashupatinath temple of Katmandu are as sacred and pious as any part of India. And many people whoever from main land India visits these places they all pay homage to above mentioned temples without fail. 

Sixthly the gods and goddess that are worshipped by Tripuri's in particular and the indigenous people in general are same as that of so called main stream Hinduism. For instances the gods of Earth, water or river, fire, trees, hills, dales, stones, different animals like cows, snakes, etc. are all the same and one.

Seventhly the ethnographers and western writers including many liberal Indologist considers the indo-mongoloid's religion as Hindu, that is why Nepal is the only Hindu country till recent times. Historians and ethnographers like  Rev. James Long, E F Sandys, J J Hunter, Col. Todd and other western scholars had defined the Religion of Tripuri's as Hindu.

It gives a picture of the state of Hindu Society and customs in a country little known to Europeans, Tripura, the Highlands of Bengal,..which in its mountain fastness retained for so long a period the Hindu tradition unmixed with views that might stream in from other countries. in had been long the chosen abode of Sivism, the aobriginal religion having been supplanted by latter system. (Rev. James Long-1850 AD)

Eighthly  the priests and religious leaders of main stream Hindu pilgrimage of India like Banaras, Gaya, Prayag, Haridwar and many more places all considers the Indo-mongoloids or Kiratas as Hindu and performs all the rites and rituals like to that of other Hindu people of India.

Ninthly   "the popularity of three religious cults, i.e. Saiva, Sakta, and Tantric among the Hindus may be fairly ascribed to the Kirats of north east of India. Saivism and Saktism were the prevailing religion among kirata people, especially the Khais, the Garos, the Cacharis, the Tipperas ad the Chutiyas..."
"the worshipping of the female energy, and Sakti, Candika, Devi, trees, spirits of hills, foresr, rivers, streams, ...the customs of offering, etc. are all the remnants of the Kirata civilisation, which spread from Bengal to Arakan. The Aryans subsequently accepted these faiths in a considerable modified form."
"Saivisim was the most important religion of the Kirata of Tippera hill. The worship of Siva in the Tippera hill was greatly associated human sacrifice. The worship of Sakti in the forom of Uma or Durga, Vishnu and various other Hindu god and goddess by the Kirata tribes of Tripura..."(The Kiratas in Ancient India, by G. P. Singh)

Vedic and Aryans God and Goddess: The theory of Hindu religions origin from Indo-Aryan faith is null and void by the following facts. Let us look at the list of names of Gods which the Indo-Aryan people had brought when they invaded Indus civilization. Rig-veda has all the names of god which the Indo-Aryan used to worship when they first came to India. Their faith and philosophy were based on these gods only. The rituals, procedure and hymn etc were detailed in the sacred text of Vedas. Some of the primary and powerful gods mentioned in the Rig-Vedas are Indra, Agni, Varun, Vrihaspati, Brahma, Arundhati, Soma, Vayu, Aswin, Rhitu, Marut, Rudra, Ribhus, Savitar, Brahmanspati. But in the present day Hindu religion none of the Vedic god is worshipped in India. The Brahma is the only one ha temple at Puskar in Rajasthan, and he too does not have any day fixed through out a year. There is no god of Aryan or Vedic origin in the list of Hindu Gods of modern India, other than doubtfully the Vishnu which is considered to be origin of Dravidian. On the contrary none of the Hindu gods of modern India is mentioned or had a place in Vedas. These facts clearly prove that the Hindu religion and its gods are neither born from Aryan faith nor derived from Vedic gods and philosophy.

Gods of Hindu Religion:
The gods most widely worshipped and celebrated to day in India are, 1) Shiva and in his various forms and manifestations. 2) Parvati and her various forms and manifestation. 3) Children of Shiva and Parvati, they are (i) Lakshmi, (ii) Saraswati (iii) Ganesh (iv) Kartika 4) Vishnu and his various incarnations. 5) Various Guru as Demi-gods who are considered as incarnation or birth of different gods.

Vishnu is considered by the scholars as the originally god of Dravidian people and have derived from word ‘Vin’ who was god of sun and sky of Dravidian. He was mentioned in the later book of Rig-Veda, when he was accepted in the Vedic faiths.

Gods of Indus Civilization:
The most important archeological finding of Harappa gods is Pashupati, an image of god seated with buffalo, tiger, elephant deer etc, with head gear made of buffalo horn. He is identified with the present day Hindu god Shiva. There were also female gods’ terracotta and images found in the excavation of Indus civilisation. These are the gods of Indus people that used to be worshipped during Indus civilisation.

The Origin of Shiva:
The word Shiva has root in the Kirata or Borok race, not in the Vedas  because  Shiva as god is not mentioned in it. Shiva is hybrid of two Kirata words, simani means Gyan or knowledge and Kaiba, means five, i.e. Si+Ba=Siba>Siva>Sibarai>Sibrai . That means a god who has knowledge of five elements of life, that is earth, fire, water, air, and sky, that is cosmic rays which forms the life. That is one who has created life in this world or creator of life in the world. Other meaning can be one who made us perceive or feel five senses in our body, that is who is the soul of the boy. It is this Sibrai converted to Shivai in Sanskrit. From this five shiva is said to have five face and named as “Panchanan.

In Bodo culture he is known as Bathubrai, meaning king of collection of five elements of earth, fire, water, air and sky, that means creator, the supreme god. The other meaning can apply in this case also. So the god Shiva is originally god of Borok/ Kirata race not that of Aryan or Dravidian.

The other name of Mahadev is direct translation of Mutai kotor, the supreme god of Tripuri people and first among the fourteen gods. The mutai kotor or Subrai is considered as supreme creator of this universe and the life in the earth in the mythology of Tripuri people. This fact had been finally accepted in the Indian mythology and Shiva had been placed above the Vishnu and Brahma of trinity gods.

Feature of Shiva the Creator:

1)      His home or abode is in the Himalaya only, namely Amarnath, Badrinath, Hardwar, Kedaranath, Kailash mansarover and many more. It is again home of Kirata or borok race.

2)      Fond of wine, ganja, dhatura who remains intoxicated most of time.

3)      Fond of meat and non-vegeterean foods.

4)      He is half naked, wearing skin of tiger in the loin only, rudraskha or dudrai mala in neck.

5)      Living with Snakes and other animals.

6)      His symbol is crescent moon, a symbol of Chandra dynasty, Trishul in hand.

7)      He is wandering god, living with different ghost in the cremation ground; body is smeared with ash of cremation.

8)      Hair is uncombed, unclean body, with horn pipe in hand, and dumbru in other.

9)      He is short tempered, mighty, courageous, does not think of consequences, destructives.

10)  Easily convincible, compassionate, merciful, big hearted as termed Ashutosh or Bholenath.

11)   Living with wife, who is Parvati or Haichwkma, goddess of Hill.

12)  His animal carrier was originally buffalo, which was later converted to Ox by Aryan people, as found in Indus valley. The buffalo is still the carrier of Shiva in Tibet, China, and Japan porves that it was originally of Kirata god.

13)   Worshiped by offering wine, animal sacrifice, and water is poured in the Shiva linga.

All the above feature of the Shiva suggest that he was the god of Kirata or Borok race initially but later modified to suit the Aryan faith or belief. And he was termed as one of the Hindu god and his carrier animal had been changed from buffalo to ox.

Origin of Shiva Ling:
There are many explanation of origin of the Shiva linga worshipping and the origin of word linga. But none of the explanation given in the Puran convincing and logical. On the other hand if we explain according to Tripuri custom and belief it can be explained for both. The Kirata are not expert in making idol and never worshipped idol so also the Aryan are. In ancient time people used to worship small linga shaped stone symbolizing as god Shiva specially in the jungle. They used to pour water, sacrificed animals in front of it and smear blood on it. This is still in practice in Tripura among the Tripuri people. This stone is represented as image of Shiva among Tripuri. Such type of example is one Holong mutai in west Tripura interior hill of Boromura. It is very popular and lots of devotee of Tripuri people pay visit every year.

This Holong is pronounces as Hlong in Riang dialect and was also among other Tripuri people in the past three thousand years ago. This word hlong is converted to hlong>hling> ling in later period by the Aryans to suit their tongue. This way Shiva had been worshiped in the form of shiv-ling by Aryans, which was nothing but Holong mutai representing Shiva of Borok race.

Other names of Shiva:
Shiva has many name, one such name is Kirateshwar means god of Kirat people, so it also proves that Shiva is god of Borok race. His another name is ‘Hor’, it does not have meaning in Sanskrit other than to steal, where as it has a most significant and powerful meaning as ‘fire’ which lord Shiva appropriately deserves, as he is the most powerful like fire, from which these universe had been created. The slogan raised for him as “Hor-hor Bhom-bhom” has no literal meaning in Indian languages, but it has the meaning full explanation in Tripuri language, as big burning flames of fire! One more name is Tripureshwar, meaning god of Tripura. The other name is Tripurari, which means killer of Tripur. According to Rajmala and mythology also the king Tripur of Tripura was killed by Shiva, so he is termed as Tripurari or enemy of Tripur. All these facts indicate that Shiva was in fact god of Kirata, god of Hindu origin not the Aryan Vedic god.

The Origin of Parvati:
The goddess Parvati had been directly translated from the Kirata of Borok word Haichwk ma or the goddess of hills, and accordingly worshipped by the Aryan. This goddess is also not mentioned in the Vedas either in name or in any of its form. It purely represents the goddess of Kirata race. In the mythology of Parvati’s birth had been described in many ways, and none is convincing and are contradictory each other. So it clearly proves that Parvati was not goddess of Aryan people but originally goddess of Borok race.

According to Tripuri mythology, she lives in the hill and owner of hill and hills belonging including the animals. She keeps animal under her custody and domestic animals including human are not excluded from it. If she desires so she can take away any animal and human and hide it from owner, which she releases only after receiving offers. She is also the Kamlapati in the famous Boro Kwina ni mutai. Again she is also considered as the consort of lord Shiva who is almighty owner of universe. The same is described in the main land Hindu mythology.

Abode of Parvati:
According to the Tripuri mythology and faith she lives in the jungle and all the high hills. She is worshipped in the jungle only even today. The same theory is found among the main land Hindu also. Where as no Aryan prefers to live in the hill or jungle, where as the Kirata loves to live in jungle and the hill times since immemorial and their god and goddess are always considered to be hill and jungle dweller, so is the goddess of Parvati and Shiva. Parvati or the Vaishnu devi home is none other than in the peak of Himalaya. Other than this different manifestation of Parvati’s and her temple like Chamunda, Hadimba, Tripura Sundari and many more are situated in the hills of Himalaya. These facts clearly prove that Parvati was originally goddess of Kirata and later absorbed in to the main Hindu fold.

Other name of Parvati:
One of the several names of Parvati is Kirati, which means goddess of Kirata people. The other name given was Kiratini again means that Parvati or Durga is goddess of Kirata origin. After giving these many examples there can not exist any doubt the Kirata origin of Parvati.

Manifestation as Uma:
One of the names of Parvati is Uma. This name is also not mentioned in any of the Vedas. So it is not the vedic goddess. The origin and the birth of word Uma is also full of conflicting and contradictory in the Purana. But it is very clear according to Tripuri faith and mythology. The goddess of earth or the state is termed as Ama by us, meaning by my mother goddess. The Tripureshwari Goddess is called as simply Ama or sakani ama that mother of south. This word Ama had been corrupted to Ama>Uma by the Aryan and symbolized with Parvati. It is so simple, logical and rational to explain rather than taking tortuous route.

Origin of Goddess Durga:
Like the origin and explanation of all of the gods and goddess of Hindu in the Puran are contradictory and conflicting, this one is also facing the same. Neither of the explanation is satisfactory. She had not been mentioned in the Vedas and not worshipped during the vedic period. So she is also the goddess of Kirata people. There is one interesting fact to note that, one small idol of Goddess Tripureshwari is placed just on left side of main idol even now. This idol used to be carried out at the time of war by the commanders and placed first in the fort or durgo in the war field. She was first worshipped and then preceded for war. So she is the protector of durgo, from this durgo the ward and form of Durga had come into being in modern day.

First Celebration of Durga in Bengal:
Durga puja in the modern form was first celebrated by Koch king Kongsha Narayan in the 16th century, who was descendant of Borok race. Similarly there is a Durga mandir in the Dimapur which was built by the Dimasa King. The Tripura king had their Durga mandir near their palace since the ancient time. There were many coins of Tripura kings discovered with Durga image proves that it was goddess of Tripuri people. First the image of Durga was found in the coins of Kushan or Kuei-shang king dating back to 1st century AD. It was later found in subsequent kings. So Durga was goddess of the Kirata or Borok kings and Borok race in name & form, a goddess of war and victory, which was later accepted by the people of other races.

Tripuris Osa-Durga 600 AD Devtamura, Osa or Durga as Oeso in 1st century AD.
Idol Worshipping in Tripura: There is no other Durga's deity in India older then the above one found of  Tripura. In fact no image of idol of vedic god had been discovered till now. rather vedic aryan did not worshiped the idols. The first idols worshipping was found during the reign of Kushan Dynasty, who were Mongoloid in origins. So the fact that Tripuris do not worship idol is a wrong notion, in fact the deity of Tripureswari is the oldest north east India, 309 years older than Kalighat temple , 356 years older than Dakshneshwar temple of Kolkata and 65 years older than Kamakhya of Guwahati. Even the idol of Kosba Temple of Tripura is older by 200 years from Kolkata's temples.  The age of Fourteen gods are more than 2000 years old since the time of  Subrai Raja.

Origin of Kali:
The origin of kali in name and form has come from the Borok people, but again hijacked by Bengali. The kali had derived from the word swkal or witch. It is pronounced as Skali in Riang dialect. Skali is later on corrupted from Skali>kali to kali in Sanskrit. An evil spirit swkal when takes refuge in women is called as Swkal, and when takes to man he is known as Beduwa. Swkal is again considered as consort of Burasa mutai, an evil form of Subrai. That is why she is worshipped or offered in the night, in the jungle only. For this reason we find the attire of kali with garland of human head, waist cloths of arms, with sword, drinking human blood, and protruded out tongue, which symbolizes imagination of our Swkal.

Origin of Laksmi:
The goddess Laksmi is also did not find any place in the sacred text of Vedas. It had been mentioned as adjective to describe, not as goddess. It had derived from Kirata goddess of Mailuma in form who is goddess of rice and wealth in form. On the word form it had derived from Noksuma, here letter
N is replaced with L that is common in Aryan language, like Nimbu=Lembu, Lon(take)=Nin. So Noksuma>Loksuma>Loksma> Loksmi, where as it retained the form of goddess of Mailuma. As such the rice was grain of Kirata race, who brought while migrating from china, where it was first discovered by Chinese people, so the concept of Goddess of rice given to Laksmi favours of Kirata race.

Origin of Saraswati:
This is the only goddess found in the Vedas and found to be origin of Aryan people. But again its form has been totally changed form its earlier form. It was mentioned in two meaning, one as river one as goddess. Sarswati in the Vedas was goddess of wealth, fruits and well being not as goddess of learning and intelligence. Sarswati to day is clothed with white color which had derived from Khuluma of Tripuri people who is goddess of cotton and learning as she teaches us to weave and design the clothes. Khuluma is considered white color as she for cotton.

Origin of Manasa:
Goddess manasa was not mentioned in Vedas like all the Hindu gods, she is mentioned only in the latter part of purana, some where in 15th century. She derived form the goddess noksuma of Tripuri people, but here she got the form and the meaning of Noksuma unlike laskmi who go only the name. she is goddess of snake like noksuma of Tripuris. The letter N of Noksuma inter changes with the last letter M and K is deleted. So naksuma>mansama>mansa. Mansa is goddess of snake in main land Hindu simmilarly the Noksuma is goddess of snake among the Tripuri people.

Origin of Lord Ganesh:
He is described as son of Shiva and Parvati, so he is none but mongoloid god. His name and form is also absent in the Vedas, that means he is not the Aryan god. It most likely represents the god Goria of Tripuri people. The other name of ganesh is Binayak, on the other hand baba Goria is worhipped as Binairok by the Ochai and during invocation He is uttered as Binairok not as Goria. This shows that the Goria and the Gonesh is same in the past. The knot tied at the end of Risa for holding paddy, cotton, flower etc was misinterpreted as trunk of elephant, so the ganesh head is considered as to be of elephant. These way, binairok became binayak and goria>gonesh. As Baba Goria is god of wealth, production, benevolent, and for the welfare the lord ganesh is also considered in the same meaning in main land Hinduism. So the Goria being transformed in to ganesh is the fact.

Origin of Kartik:
Kartik is younger brother of Ganesh, and son of shiv and durga, there by he is god of Kirata people by birth. His name is also not mentioned in the Vedas, so he is not god of Aryan people. According to Tripuri mythology, god Kalia is younder brother of Goria, he is also god of wellbeing. In the course of cultural synthesis during pauranic period this Kalia had been transformed in to Kartik is quite possible.

Kiratas Contribution in Hindu Custom:

      Aum>Hohngnai >hong>houm>oum  


Ling from Hlong

Dudrai or  rudrakho mala

Pouring of water on Ling

Applying of Sindur or Tilok >Sundul fulmani>Thwi Sindil

Singa or the horn musical instrument



Serving of Paddy

Cotton or Khul rimani

Sacred thread or Khwtwng alua bogmani

Unboiled rice or mairung aluwa

Puffed rice or Khamchwi bogmani

Banana tree or Thalik fang kaimani

Puita or Sacred thread Puida kanma>puichang, puidri

Kwthar tongmani

Vegetareanism & fasting or Neremsi chamani

Red border saree or Rignai gana kwchak kanmani

Sacrifice or Boli rimani

Joto kali or ama's mandir

Udaipur's mandir

Mutai chibrwi or 14 gods mandir

Kosoba's mandir

Durga mandir of Agartala

Kamakhya mandir

Koch Bihar's  mandir

Buishnu devi

Tripura Sundari Kulu-ni

Dimapur's  Durga mandir 

Not Believing the Facts Above:
If the above mentioned facts are not convincing and finding difficult to digest and not easily going up to our brain, then look at the following facts:

1)      The Tripureshwari Temple of Udaipur is built by King Dhanya Manikya in the year 1500 AD. But now it is mentioned in the Puran and described this temple as part of 51 pitha where Parvati’s right foot is considered to have fallen when her body was cut into 51 pieces by sudrashan charka. Then, is this true to the historical facts of Tripura?

2)      The 14 gods of Kharchi are all Gods of Tripuri people and are named according to kokborok in the past. Rajmala compilers like Kailash Chandra had clearly mentioned that these were none but translated to Sanskrit, though retaining the same meaning.

3)      The Kamakhya Temple of Guwahati was built by Koch king (Borok race) in the end of 13th century, but this is again included in the list of 51 pitha where Parvati’s private part is considered to have fallen, where as truth is other way round!

So what is Our Religion?

Now going through the historical facts mentioned above who are the original Hindu? Are we Kirata or those invaders Aryan? What are their gods they brought along with them and listed in the Vedas? What are the gods images found in the Indus valley? What are our traditional and mythological gods?

Who have converted to Hindu to whom? Did the Aryan convert us to Hindu?  Or we Borok (Kirata) converted Aryans to Hindu?

Who had stopped worshipping their gods? Is it Borok or Aryan? Who had lost their culture? Is it Borok or Aryan? 

So my fellow Tripuri people there is no cause to feel inferior or to feel that we are not Hindu or gods of Hindu are not ours. There is no reason to search for BETTER GOD and BETTER RELIGION. No logic to through your OWN RELIGION & GOD. All the India’s religion, culture originated from your fore-fathers and belong to you since 8000 years. The earth, water, fire, air, and sky of India are also yours, as it had been of your ancestors for thousands of years ago.