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Tripura, the land of History and Legends

Himalayan Kirata


Kiranti New Year

 

Himalayan Kirata Race

     

The Himalayan Kiratas are the Bodo group of people who entered India through the north west around 6000 BC. Over the years of civilization the group had dispersed in several groups. In the process of migration and movement which is a natural process some groups had settled in the Himalayan region and established their kingdoms. While some of them had farther migrated towards the north east and such groups are Bodo, Koch, Tripuri, Garo, Rabha, Dimasa, and many more such groups and sub groups. One such group which settled their kingdom over Himalayan area permanently was Kiranti. The history has elaborated recorded documents about their civilization, culture, religious practices, customs, rites and rituals. They had their new year celebration in the Magh panchami day or 5th lunar day after new moon. The history of the Kirata in the Himalayan as well as the Indian context can not be just over looked, rather there is a gulf of historical contribution to Indian civilization yet to be written and credited in fabour of Kiratas or Bodo people of India.


Kiranti New Year

Yele sambat is Kiranti New Year of Nepal and it used to be celebrated on the day of Magh Sri Panchami or Sukla panchami. This new year was celebrated by Sunuwar Kiranti since time immemorial and considered ir as very lucky, auspicious, prosperous and happy day for all Kirantis. The Yele name derived from king Yelamber who officially declared the day as new year for Kiranti people of Nepal, it was from his name the sambat or year is called as Yele sambat. The Siri panchami or sukla panchami was so auspicious day for Kiranti people be cause Yelamber defeated the Gopal dynasty's  king Bhuvansingh of Nepal on this day and he started Kiranti era from this day of Siri panchami to commemorate his victory over the Gopal Dynasty. Altogether, there were 29 kings of Kiranti dynasty who ruled over Nepal for about 1225 years, but according to Kirant bansawali record there were 34 Kiranti kings. According to the chronicle (Bansawali) of Kirkpatrick, Kiratas ruled over Nepal from about 900 B.C. to 300 A.D. During this long period, altogether 29 Kirat Kings ruled over the country. Yelamber was mighty and legendary Kirant king who led the Kiratas in the legendary Kuruchetra war of Mahavarata. Kirant people considered him as incarnation of Lord Siva or Mahadeva, so he was also called Akash Vairab as well, which is another form of lord Siva or Lord of terror. The three stories structure which now stands in the busy square of Indra Chowk in Kathmandu is the temple of Akash Vairab or temple of legendary Kirant king Yelamber. The twenty-nine Kings were: 1.Yalambar 2. Pari 3. Skandhar 4. Balamba 5. Hriti 6. Humati 7. Jitedasti 8. Galinja 9. Oysgja 10. Suyarma 11. Papa 12. Bunka 13. Swawnanda 14. Sthunko 15. Jinghri 16. Nane 17. Luka 18. Thor 19. Thoko 20.Verma 21. Guja 22. Pushkar 23. Keshu 24. Suja 25. Sansa 26. Gunam 27. Khimbu 28. Patuka 29. Gasti.

The last King of the Kirant dynasty was Gasti. He proved to be a weak ruler and was overthrown by the Sombanshi ruler Nimisha. It brought to the end of the powerful Kirant dynasty. When they were defeated by Lichabi king, again they regrouped and  formed the another Kirant kingdom in Banepa, that day was also Maghe Siri panchami or sukla pagnchami. Their new Kirant kingdom was started from Sanga Bhanjyang hill Kathmandu valley to Sikkim in east and remained as hostile power for the Lichavi. After Twenty years of ruling in Banepa as Kiranti kingdom, later it was divided into 3 small kingdom, and they were known Wallo Kirant, Majh Kirant and Pallo Kirant with the different kings. Among them Wallo Kirant had broadened from sanga bhanjyang on the  west to Dudh koshi in east. First king of Wallo Kirant was king Binicha. He was such mighty king that he had power of wishful death.  According to Sunuwar myth, he had hidden Tupi {long hair in middle of the head}, and he could not be killed without cutting it, which was his secret for long life and famous for magic and art of warfare. According to Sunuwar Kirant chronicle he formed the Wallo Kirant on the day of Maghe Siri panchami or sukla panchami. This is another  reason of Yele sambat in Bhuji kot gaun in Ramechap district, so he declared that day as new year as it was like before. This new year used to be celebrated like chandi beating dhole, chyamta and sacrificing many animals and eating, drinking making socialize, in addition to that they used to play stick fighting, sword fighting, khukuri fighting and other game of archery. This kind of game was so dangerous that it could easily break head and vulnerable organ and it very risky to life as well but these were Kiranti tradition and game of warrior race, so the festivals used to be celebrated in kshatriya style. Once two saints Yogi by the name of Kalbhairung and Kalnarsing were passing by when they saw the Wallo Kiranti new year celebration and they were so much horrified to witness it. They tried to convince the Sunuwars that they need to change their way of new year celebration because they saw many warriors were bleeding and they took heir swords from them and brought in Hanuman Dhoka in Kathmandu. In addition to this, all Kirant young lad and lass get together and make appointment for marriage if they like each other. The ear lobe of the young people were pierced for wearing ear rings, get their hair cut, go to the relatives, and inaugurate new houses. Giving new clothes to relatives on this occasion was also a tradition among Sunuwar. There is a saying among Kiranti people that there is no need to see Sahit {good day} to start journey of life. This festival was completely banned after the conquest of Gorkha darwar but it still remained during the time of Rana dynasty illegally but after Rana dynasty this festival was completely banned, all sort of Kiranti documents were burned down and destroyed which the office used term as Jatiya Nasta Bivag {Gopal Gurung} but still old Wallo Kiranti Sunuwar practice and celebrate this new year on the day of Maghe Siri panchami. So recently all Wallo Kiranti Sunuwar started to celebrate this new year for the last 10 years officially by the Sunuwar Welfare Society. Now Limbu social organisation also recognize this new year as Kiranti new year and started to follow Sunuwar's. This is celebrated not only by the Sunuwar and Limbu but we all Kiranti should recognize our festival and revive our ancient pride. Nepal is Kirant Deshe and ridiculously we are not celebrating our Kirant festival and religion. We are such rich in historically, culturally and traditionally but we seem to have lost our all faiths. This festival is not only lucky for Kiranti but many other people as well. It is presumed by sunuwars that Lord Buddha was born on Siri panchami day of Magh but Buddhist celebrate Buddha jayanti {Buddha day} on Baisakh, who was one of the greatest Kirata scholar in past who gave Nirvana for all human being. He was the great teacher of all human race. The Chinese people have Chinese new year on the same day which is called Chunche. There is strong connection with Chinese new year Chunche and Yele sambat. Yele sambat and Chunche might be same in past because Kirata people originated in Hunan province of China some 6000 BC. In this Siri panchami day Hindu goddess Saraswati puja{worship} is done. She is the goddess of learning who was earliet Kiranti goddess. Pouranic Brahmin just tactfully brought her in the Hindu fold of goddess. In the Vedas Sarswati was goddess of wealth, fruits and well being not as goddess of learning and intelligence. Sarswati today is clothed with white colour which had derived from Khuluma of Tripuri people, a branch of Kiranti, according to whose mythology she is goddess of cotton and learning as she teaches us to weave and design the clothes. Khuluma is considered white colour as for the color of cotton. It clearly shows goddess of learning Saraswati is goddess Kiranti people. So value of Siri panchami or sukla panchami is something beyond our imagination for Kiranti people. The full moon has different place for all living being. This is the day of god, goddess, and legendary story of wolf. All living being are happy to see full moon. Kiranti people have myth and belief that this is the day for all the goddess like Sime, Bhume, Nag and Nagini {Goddess of earth, goddess of water and serpent king}. They all come out on Earth to breath and  see the human activity and for blessing if they worship and appease them. People have belief that on this  day naga king or serpent god change himself to human form  and come in different houses in the disguise of yogi and bless people, that is why some people worship naga as well. Kiranti Sunuwar has belief that this new year day is very important and it's called Kharo Bar Or Kharo Din. They believe that night 7 brothers Baneskhandi{Jungle God} come to visit every Goth {Hut} to bless animals. There is a folk lore in Sunuwar that on this day Kirateswar Mahadeva and Kiratini Parbati take bath in high Himalayan holy lakes like Jhata Pokhari, Nirmal Pokhari, Bhut Pokhari, Panch Pokhari, Gosai Kunda, Tilicho Tal, Chyo Rolpa, Haleswari, Kailash Man Sarowar Tal and  in many more. For novelists, story writers, poets and lovers, this full moon day is something different. According to science sun start to move from southen solitude to northern solitude so this new year the day of Siri panchami is really very significant in terms of culture, history and science. This Yele sambat which we are celebrating now a days in Maghe Siri panchami created confusion among the Kiranti people who don't have sufficient historical knowledge about it and misunderstood as Maghe Sakranti but this is not Maghe sakranti rather it is Yele sambat Kiranti new year which we celebrate in Maghe Siri panchmi. Because of time and difficulty of fixing the time some Kiranti organisation started to celebrate in time of Magh 1st but it has to be on the day of Maghe Siri panchami or sukla panchami or Basanta panchami. Kirata race were such ancient and used to tussle with god, goddess and demon in their daily life. They were only not ancient but also had very developed civilization like Indus civilization and Mohenjo-Daro civilization. Ancient Indian civilization is civilization of Kirata. This great civilization was situated in north east Himalayan range of Mahavarata. According to S.K Chattarji north eastern Kiranti civilization was the key civilization of ancient India. They were the supreme power in that era. If one see the 10000 BC Scientific human evolution film then we can find out how civilize the Kirata people were in past. When southern Chinese people used to cultivate paddy and living with happy civilize way of life that time westerner were struggling for resources and living in cave like jungle man. Due to passage of time they started to loose their colony, civilization, culture, tradition one by one but now this is our duty to restore ancestral pride and their spirit. We must revive our own culture rather than to follow someone's religion, culture and tradition. This is the time for all Kirata people to celebrate our own legendary new year  the Yele Sambat.

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Himalayan Kirata Race

By Chandra Prakash Sunuwar
                            Dhobighat, Lalitpur, Kathmandu
                            Email: cpSunuwar@hotmail.com

Kirata people are very ancient tribe in history. Actually nobody knows when they came in Nepal, because these people are mentioned in ancient religious books of Hindu like Ved, Puran, Mahabhart, Swasthani Brata Katha, Himavat Khanda etc. These people were also mentioned in ancient Greek history, Chinese history and holy book of Sikh guru Granth Saheb. In Mahabharataa once lord Siva went to Nepal disguising himself as Kirata hunter and was hunting around pasupatinath in Sleshmantak Van. This proved that Kirata people were already in Nepal since ancient time, actually no body knows the fact clearly. According to Mahabharataa when Bhimsen defeated  the seven Kirata kings in northern India that time to make him happy, beautiful Kirata ladies brought for him mountain medicine, gold, silver and other precious things. It was also mentioned that beautiful Kirata kanya (damsel) was digging the medicine in mountain with golden khurpi (a kind knife). The Kirata New Year is been already 5063 years old which is considered to had been started by the Kirata king Yalamber  that is why new year is called Yele Sambat. The Wallo Kiranti of Kirata people used to celebrate this new  year on the day of Maghe Siri Panchami or Sukla Panchami because these days are always considered lucky for Kirata people. It is believe that Yalamber was formed the kingdom  in that day. This facts proves that Kirata people existed even before 5000 years back. When they were defeated by Litchchivi they again formed 3 Kirata kingdoms in east. It is a myth and believe that wallo Kirata king Binicha establish his kingdom on this auspicious day of Maghe sukla panchami. In the distant past they were not only in the present Nepal but they also ruled and lived all over the Himalayan range from Pakistan, Afghanistan to all the Northern India like Himanchal Pradesh, Nagaland, Silang, Sikkim, Darjeeling to Compochia and Vietnam. Nowadays these Kirata had disappear and disguised themselves as local people, for proof one can still find Kulung people in Taiwan And China. They are tribe from our kulung Rai, Sunuwar are called Koich or Koichi, still you can find Koich Tribe in Japan (Like Koichi Tanaka, Koichi Sugiyama, Koichi Nakata, Koichi Togo, Koichi Murayama etc.). In Sunuwar language koich used for male and koichim for woman, exactly Japanese tribe said koich for male and koichim for women. They are very famous tribe or surname they are considered to have migrated from China about 5000 year ago. So on ancient Kirata were NAGA from Assam and Burma. Khmer from Cambodia (Who believe their ancestor were Kirata and came from Assam. Khmerouge or Khmer guerrillas are world famous and well known people. Khmer empire was so  large who  used to rule all IndoChina, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Malayasia & part of China. According to Professor Gerry Norman And Tsu-Liu Mei. Mon Khmer Kirata people meet Chinese in Yangtze region between 1000 BC and 500 BC. Yangtze king valley was non Chinese specially Khmer Kirata used to live) Khasi from Silang, Lepcha from Sikkim, Drukpa from Bhutan, Hazra tribe from Afghanistan and Pakistan as well (Who had built giant tallest stone Buddha in Afghanistan but this was destroyed by Taliban  hitting by missile during the Taliban regime). Even Kirata language on the basis of verbal agreement morphology the Kirata family has been compared to the Qiangic and Nungish groups spoken respectively in Sichuan China and the China - Burma Boarder area which is written by Thurgood 1984. It can be proved that ancient Kirata were completely assimilated themselves with the local people of that country. According to Sunuwar Kirata bansawali Assamese and Tripuri people were same race with Kirata. The Tripura people are considered part of Tibeto-Burmese ethnic group. Originally they migrated from near the Upper courses of Yangtze Kiang and Hwang Ho river in western China, long before the Sui Dynesty came to power. At the time of migration they were Animist. So it may be reasonably assumed that they migrated before 65 AD, in the year when Buddhism was introduced in China. The Common reference to these people as Kiratas and Cinas in the early Sanskrit Texts of India, unmistakably indicates that they came down to the Assam valley long before the dawn of Christian era. Tripuris were able to expand their influence as far as Chittagong, as far west as Comilla and Noakhali. Not only Nepal but Tripura as well was also known as Kirata Desha (Land of Kirata). According to anthropology it is assumed that they migrated during hunting age in the ancient time. Manipur and Hastinapur city were so famous and centre of civilization in ancient India. There were too many myth and legendary folk tales about ancient Manipuri Kirata king and civilization. These people were Bali Pujak. The way of worship (Bali puja bidhi)of Kamakhya Devi's temple in Assam is considered Kirata bidhi.  Koti Hom was Kirata dharma (Bali puja). Still the wallo Kirata Sunuwar celebrate this koti home puja. It's called Gil Puja, in which one has to sacrifice 360 animal of earth and all sort of grain of earth, one has to prepare hundred of thousand of Muris wine. Hundred of jhakri, bijuwa and many different kind of Naso (Mundhum pujari) continue praying. In ancient time, it used to last long for more then 6 months. This Gil puja is very expensive, one can't do himself alone, it has to be done by community, so the Koti Hom or Gil Puja started to disappear, which was one of the greatest Kirata puja. According to Sunuwar Kirata bansawali when the Kirata come down from the Mongolia to the Indian continent and started to migrate to westward of Himalayan range from Assam to Nepal who left in northern India these Kiratas are called Naga, gora, bora, chapera, villa, khasia. Still these people are pure Mongoloid people. The rest one branch of Kirata who entered the Nepal and started to ruled. Descendants of these Kiratas later became Sunuwar, Rai, Limbu and Yakha.

When Kiratas were defeated from Kathmandu valley, again they regrouped and establish 3 Kirata kingdom in east like Wallo Kirata, Majh Kirata and Pallo Kirata. The new Kirata kingdom was started from Sanga Bhanjyang Hill in Kathmandu(from west) to Sikkim in the east.They  marked the Boarder with erecting Tharo (ancient way of marking the boarder).

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Sunuwar are called wallo Kirata, Rai are called majh Kirata, and Limbus are called pallo Kirata. That time the first king of wallo Kirata was king Binicha whose kingdom was at Bhuji kot gaun in Ramechchap district. The later kings and queens were Mafai Rani Mafai Raja, Golma Rani Golma Raja,Chuphai Rani Chuphai Raja, Kalo Rani Kalo Raja, Hunpin Rani Hupin Raja, Thaku Rani Thaku Raja, Gosai Rani Gosai Raja, Naisa Rani Naisa Raja etc. But these things only left in secret mantra (Dhami, Jhakri, Bijuwa, Nasho, Baidang and Mundum) which was recorded in Bhag pahilo Kirata bansawali.  It is myth that it was written with the blood and gold so one can see blood golden colour, which was purely written in KAIKE (ancient Kirata script, Nowadays wallo Kirata people are trying to copy that kaike lipi by the help of old peoples which was already released long time ago. If one interested then one can find in Sunuwar welfare society). All of these proof and precious book were destroyed by Rana government. That time they were specially opened office to destroy all of these recorded historical book, bansawali, lal mohar, tamra patra, silapatra, bhoj patra of Kirata people. Office was used to be called Jatiya nasta bivag (Gopal Gurung). Kiratachap darwar of dolakha district was built by wallo Kirata king, same thing Kirata dhara and chautara of mirge village of dolakha district was build by wallo Kirata king still this Dhara is called Banja Dhara by local Tamang people that means Sunuwar Kirata dhara in Tamang language. Still there are many Kirata grave in Jiri, Sindhupalchok and Kavre palanchok, Chyane, Trisule in Thulopatal (Village Development Committee) of Dolakha district. Ancient Kirata were fierce fighter, deft archers hunters and trappers so still Kirata Sunuwar are called Duwal Bandhi Sikari. In ancient time Sunuwar people used to take a Dalo (Basket) of humming bird (Phista chara), leg of wild boar, deer (Specially Jharl and Ghoral) and wines in marriage proposal, because he has to show the hunting skill, as being hunter. By gone days when other tribes apart from Kirata if they go in jungle or top of the hill they used to say 'Rachcha gara sikari Kirata'. Still in village people scared to become sick in time of morning, evening and place like top of the hill and jungle because they have belief that Kirata archer will shoot the arrow on them if they show disrespect in such place. Still in chandi festival they kill the buffalo and pigs by shooting arrow, keeping in practice of their hunting tradition. When they get angry they crossed the border it's extreme so they are given symbol name of Chituwa And Kiruwa. When the Gurkha king seized the land of Kirata with the help of conspiracy, the Kiratas were given many positions and greed's like Mukhiya, Subba, Rai, Dewan, Gimi, Gimwal, Thalu, Panchayen, Gaurun and Tamrapatra, Lal Mohor which they have guaranteed that Kirata lands always belongs to Kirata, which can never be seized by others, like in Limbus tamra patra, it is written and sign by Prithivinarayan Shah. In that tamra patra it says (Udho Jagar,Ubho Bagar Kholako Tite Mancha Samma Tolai, Akas Ko Chandra Surye Patalko Basuki Yedi Mera Santan Le Terha Pusta Bhitra Tera Rajya Phirta Nadiye Nepal Khalbaline Cha). Same thing Sunuwar's has Lal mohar. During the Rana period, a well known and legendary  Thalu who was Parat Jijicha Sunuwar, who got the royal seal from Rana government at that time appointing Thalu (position) of all eastern Kirata region. He can go as far as he liked to decide the reeds (mudda). He was the ultimate power above the law in that area. He was born in Ward no. 3 Surke village development committee in Rasnalu. He was very wealthy man. He had 500 cattle's, uncountable Goats, Sheeps and land which one cannot view by naked eye, and it needs one day to cover it on foot. His descendant are still alive if one tries to know more about him then certainly one can get more knowledge about him.

The Kiratas (Sanskrit) mentioned in early Hindu texts are the tribal or Adivasi (aborigines) of the land. They are mentioned along with Cinas (Chinese). The Kirata (Sanskrit) is a generic term in Sanskrit literature for people who lived in the mountains, particularly in the Himalayas and North-East India and who were Mongoloid in origin. They are mentioned along with Cinas (Chinese), and were different from the Nishadas.[1] They are first mentioned in the Yajurveda (Shlokla XXX.16; Krisha III.4,12,1), and in the Atharvaveda (X.4,14). Yajur Veda described as the 'handsome' mountain people and hunters in the forests and deadly warriors. In Manu's Dharmashastra (X.44) they are mentioned as degraded Kshatriyas, which meant that they were considered to be of advanced civilization, but outside the ambit of Brahminical influence. It is speculated that the term is a Sanskritization of a Sino-Tibetan tribal name, like that of Kirata or Kirata of eastern Nepal. Kirata languages belong to Tibeto-Burman family of Languages. Kiratas have been identified as the present day Rai, Limbu and Sunuwar of Nepal. Ghatotkacha of Mahabharataa fame (Son of Bhima) was a Kirata Chieftain. In Yoga Vasistha 1.15.5 Rama speaks of kirAteneva vAgurA, 'a trap [laid] by Kiratas', so about BCE Xth Century, they were thought of as jungle trappers, the ones who dug pits to capture roving deer. The same text also speaks of King Suraghu, the head of the Kiratas who is a friend of the Persian King, Parigha.The most famous Kiratas in Hinduism.
 

Kirata Kingdom in Sanskrit literature and Hindu mythology refers to any kingdom of the Kirata people, who were dwellers mostly in the Himalayas (mostly eastern Himalaya) and North-East India. They took part in the Kurukshetra War along with Parvatas (mountaineers) and other Himalayan tribes. They were wide-spread in the folds and valleys of Himalayas in Nepal and Bhutan, and in the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam and Tripura.

Though dwelling in the Himalayas and other inaccessible regions, Kiratas did not get the status of super-humans enjoyed by other tribes like the Gandharvas, Kinnaras, Kimpurushas and Yakshas. This was probably because of their greater interaction with the Vedic people, which resulted in their de-mystification.

The Kirats were the aborigines of north-eastern Himalayas . According to Baburam Acharya, they came to Nepal in about 700 B.C. and ruled over it. They were short and had robust bodies, broad cheeks, flat noses, thin whiskers, and dark eyes. They were well trained in the art of warfare, and were very skilful archers. They were the ancestors of the present day Kiratas:-Kulung, Thulung and Yellung. Yalamber, the first Kirata king of Nepal belonged to the Yellung clan.

According to the Kirata genealogy, collected by Wright, twenty-nine Kings of the Kirata dynasty ruled over Nepal for 1,118 years. Some historians claim, the number of Kirata rulers was not twenty-nine but thirty-two. Irrespective of the number, the fact is that Yalambar was the first and Gasti was the last king of this dynasty

Altogether, there were 29 kings of this dynasty who ruled over Nepal for about 1225 years. But according to Kirata bansawali record there were 34 Kirata kings who ruled the Nepal . According to the chronicle (Bamsavali) of Kirkpatrick, Kiratas ruled over Nepal from about 900 B.C. to 300 A.D. During this long period, altogether 29 Kirat Kings ruled over the country'.

The twenty-nine Kings were : 1.Yalambar 2.Pari 3. Skandhar 4.Balamba 5.Hriti 6.Humati 7.Jitedasti 8.Galinja 9.Oysgja 10.Suyarma 11.Papa 12.Bunka 13.Swawnanda 14.Sthunko 15.Jinghri 16.nane 17.luka 18.Thor 19.Thoko 20.Verma 21.Guja 21.Guja 22.Pushkar 23.kKeshu 24.Suja 25.Sansa 26.Gunam 27.Khimbu 28.Patuka 29.Gasti

 On the basis of the Puranas and other ancient religious texts, it is presumed that the Kiratas ruled in Nepal after Gopal and Mahipal. The first king of the Kiratas was Yalamber, who defeated Bhuvan Singh, the last king of Ahir dynasty and established Kirata rule in Nepal. He extended his kingdom as far as the Tista river in the east and the Trishuli in the west. It is said that during the battle of Mahabharataa, Yalamber went to witness the battle with a view to take the side of the losing party. Lord Krishna, knowing the intention of Yalamber and the strength and unity of the Kiratas, thought that the war would unnecessarily be prolonged if Yalamber sided with the Kauravas. So, by a clever stroke of diplomacy, Lord Krishna cut off Yalamber's head. Here I would like to describe how Yalambers head landed in Nepal and later became worship place of Nepalese as the Akash Bhairab. Akash Bhairav, is the temple of the Kirat King who was slained during the epic battle of Mahabharataa.

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The Kirats were the first documented rulers of the Kathmandu Valley. The remains of their palace are said to be in Patan near Hiranyavarna Mahavihara (called 'Patukodon').

The first and best remembered king was Yalambar. Legend has it that when Yalamber heard about the great battle that was fought in the distant plains of Kurukshetra, he too wanted to participate in this battle. So donning a fierce and silver mask of Bhairab, the Lord of Terror, he went with his army. At the battle field he met with Lord Krishna who asked him whose side he was on. He replied that he would take the side of the   losing army. Lord Krishna fearing that the fearsome warrior would join the Kauravas, decapitated his head with such force that it flew past the Himalayas to Kathmandu and rested at the place where the Akash Bhairab temple now stands. The temple, a three storey structure now stands in the busy square of Indra Chowk. But according to Sunuwar Kirata bansawali it was not Yalamber but was Kirata Eklabya who went to Mahabharata war taking only 3 arrows which he can destroy heaven, earth and hell. Even Krisna was not mighty like him so he killed him with the help of conspiracy.

Nepal is a very ancient country, which was ruled by many dynasties in the past. Among them, the Kirata rule is taken as a very significant one, being the longest period that extended from pre-historic to historic period. In ancient Hindu scriptures, Nepal is referred as the 'Kirata Desh' or 'the Land of Kiratas '.

Kiratas were indigenous people of Mongolian race with stout and short stature, high cheekbones, flat noses, narrow black eyes and thin moustaches and beards. They were brave and doughty warriors and very deft archers. Before the advent of the Kiratas, there were Ahir and Abhir rules in the valley. Yalambar, the first Kirata King, overthrew the last king of Abhir dynasty Bhuban Shima. Thus, after defeating the last ruler of Abhir dynasty, Yalambar laid the foundation of the Kirat dynasty that lasted for about 1225 years. When Kiratas occupied the valley, they made Matatirtha their capital. The Kirata kingdom during the rule of Yalambar had extended to all mountain range in west to Afghanistan and Assam to the East. The Kiratas of Nepal revered him as the God King.

It was during the rule of Jitedasti, the 7th Kirata king, Lord Gautama Buddha visited the valley with his several disciples. He visited the holy places of Swayambhu, Suheswari, etc and preached his religious gospels. Kiratas in the valley refused to follow his doctrine, but welcomed Lord Buddha and his disciples. It is also said that King Jitedasti had helped the Pandavas in the battle of Mahabharataa. It shows, of course, a historical anachronism; because according to another legend, the battle Mahabharataa had taken place during the regime of King Yalambar.

During the rule of the 4th Kirata King Sthunko about 250 BC, the Indian Emperor Ashoka had his inspections engraved on rocks and a stone-pillar. The pillar known as Ashoka-pillar still stands in Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautama Buddha. This historical monument was unknown to the world until Dr. Fuher discovered it in December 1985. Nepal Government has prepared a master-plan to protect and develop the Lumbini region as a religious tourism destination.

Emperor Ashoka also came to the Kathmandu Valley later. His daughter Princess Charumati accompanied him. During his stay in the valley, he built four stupas in four directions and one in the centre of Patan. These monuments speak of the historical fact of Ashoka's visit to the valley. Another fact is he arranged his daughter Charumati's marriage with a local young Prince named Devpal. Prince Devpal and his consort Charumati lived at Chabahil, near the Pashupatinath temple area. Later, Charumati built the touss of Devpatan after the death of her husband in his memory. Charumati who later on became a nun also got erected a convent where she resided and practiced Lord Buddha's doctrine.

Buddhism, thus entered Nepal and flourished during the liberal rule of the Kirata dynasty. Like Buddhism, another religious doctrine Jainism was being preached the same time by Mahavir Jain in India. In this regard, Bhadrabhau, a disciple of Mahavir Jain came to Nepal in about 300 BC when the 17th Kirata king Jinghri was ruling. But comparatively, Jainism could not gain popularity like Buddhism in Nepal.

When the 28th Kirata King Paruka was ruling in the valley, the Sombanshi ruler attacked his regime many times from the west. Although he successfully repelled their attacks, he was forced to move to Shankhamul from Gokarna. He had built a Royal Palace called 'Patuka' there for himself. The Patuka Palace is no more to be seen, except its ruins in the form of mound. 'Patuka' had changed Shankhamul into a beautiful town. The last King of the Kirata dynasty was Gasti. He proved to be a weak ruler and was overthrown by the Sombanshi ruler Nimisha. It brought to the end of the powerful Kirata dynasty that had lasted for about 1225 years.

After their defeat, Kiratas moved to the eastern hills of Nepal and settled down divided into small principalities. Their settlements were divided into three regions; namely, 'Wallo-Kirata' or 'near Kirata' (Sunuwar) that lied to the East of Kathmandu,From Banepa to Dudh koshi 'Majh-Kirata' (Rai) or 'central Kirata' from Dudh koshi to Arun koshi and 'Pallo-Kirata'(Limbu) that lied to the far east of the Kathmandu valley from Arun koshi to Sikkim. These regions are still heavily populated by Kiratas. Among the 3 Kirata's Sunuwar are the least in number because they were the main shield for Kirata region situated in west. Whenever the invasion comes from enemy they would be prime target. Since lichavi, Malla and Shah period, they were facing prime attack. There is a myth when malla king establish his palace or fort to capture Kirata region in Dolakha, Wallo Kirata king keep on fighting with them and succeed to repeal. So they were saving kipata of Kirata but finally they loose with shah king not by the war but by conspiracy. Later they easily capture majh Kirata but stuck in pallo Kirata because Limbus seen what's happen in wallo Kirata and majh Kirata already. Wallo Kirata warrior helped Prithivi Narayan to capture Kirtipur which he lost twice. Finally Kirata warrior succeeds to capture and make him victorious. They were doing this because to make him happy and not to attack Kirata land but instead he later betrayed and overrun later.

Mukhiya title was given by Prithivi Narayan shah for Sunuwar not to rebel against Gorkha kingdom. That time mukhiya position was very big and powerful, which means Head Man of wallo Kirata region. They used to collect all tax from that region.
 

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CIVILISATION AND CULTURE DURING KIRAT PERIOD

The long rule of the Kiratas manifests that they were strong and well organized people. Their society, administrative system and economy were well organized. Later, their successors Lichchhavis also gave due importance to their legacy. They exerted great influences not only in the valley, but also outside of it in the eastern region. There are still many places, hills and rivers that are named in Kirata languages.

Kiratas enjoyed a free and open society with out any gender discrimination. To facilitate justice system in the public, law courts were established at many places and effective laws were made to deal with crimes and offences. Nepal had trade link with India , Tibet (then a free country) and China. Nepalese businessmen carried out trade with these countries. Nepal chiefly exported wool, woolen goods, timber and herbs. Chanakya has mention in his famous book 'Kautilya Arthasastra' that Nepalese blankets had a big market in Bihar, then called Magadh. As there was more financial prosperity in trade, more people were engaged in business than in agriculture. This factor also led to the migration of people of different racial origins with their own customs and cultures to Nepal. In course of time, these people merged into the main national system and formed part of a nation, thus helping to create and develop a healthy feeling of nationalism and brotherhood.

By religion, Kiratas were originally nature worshippers. They worshipped the sun, the moon, rivers, trees, animals and stones. Their primeval deities are Paruhang and Sumnima. Hinduism was introduced to and imposed on the Kiratas only after the conquest of Gorkhali rulers whose root was in India. Kiratas were quite tolerant and liberal to other religions. That was why Buddhism flourished during the Kirata rule in Nepal. Buddhism had rekindled a new interest and attitude among the people. Kiratas also built many towns. Shankhamul, Matatirtha, Thankot, Khopse, Bhadgoan and Sanga were prosperous cities with dense population. Thus, it can be safely said that the Kirata period had paved the way for further development and progress of Nepal in all sectors in future.

References in Mahabharataa

The Yamas, Kamvojas, Gandharas, Kiratas and Barbaras were mentioned together as northern tribes at (12,206). In the Krita age, they were nowhere on earth (meaning Ancient India). It was from the Treta age that they have had their origin and began to multiply. When the terrible period came, joining Treta and the Dwapara, the Kshatriyas, approaching one another, engaged themselves in battle.-Another group comprising Andrakas, Guhas, Pulindas, Savaras, Chuchukas, Madrakas were also mentioned along with the first group.

The Yavanas, the Kiratas, the Gandharvas, the Chinas, the Savaras, the Barbaras, the Sakas, the Tusharas, the Kankas, the Pathavas, the Andhras, the Madrakas, the Paundras, the Pulindas, the Ramathas, the Kamvojas were mentioned together as tribes beyond the kingdoms of Aryavarta. The Aryavarta-kings had doubts on dealing with them. (12,64)

Kiratas in the list of ancient Indian kingdom

Kiratas were mentioned as an ancient Indian tribe along with the Pundras, the Bhargas the Sudeshnas, and the Yamunas, the Sakas etc and again along with the Sudra-Abhiras, the Dardas, the Kasmiras, and the Pattis; the Khasiras; the Atreyas, the Bharadwajas, the Stanaposhikas, the Poshakas, the Kalingas, the Tomaras, the Hansamargas, and the Karamanjakas; at(6,9).

Kiratas as a Mlechha tribe

Kiratas were mentioned along with Khasas, Chivukas and Pulindas and Chinas, Hunas, Pahlavas, Sakas, Yavanas, Savaras, Paundras, Kanchis, Dravidas, Sinhalas and Keralas. All these tribes were described as Mlechha tribes. Here they were described as the protectors of sage Vasistha and his cow against the attack of king Viswamitra. (1,177). Kirata were enemy of Indo-Aryan Vedic people who always fought against them. Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit  mleccha, meaning 'non-Aryan, barbarian') is a derogatory term for people who did not conform with the moral and religious norms of the Indo-Aryan society. The term is not attested in the Vedas, but occurs for the first time in the late puranic text Satapatha Brahmana. The law giver Baudhâyana defines a Mleccha as someone 'who eats cow meat or indulges in self-contradictory statements or is devoid of righteousness and purity of conduct.'

In the epic Mahabharataa, some Mleccha warriors are described as having 'heads completely shaved or half-shaved or covered with matted locks, [as being] impure in habits, and of crooked faces.' They are 'dwellers of hills' and 'denizens of mountain-caves.' In ancient India, this term was also applied by the Aryan kingdoms to foreigners. In Bhagavata Purana and medieval literature, such as that of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the term is used in the context of meat eaters, outcastes. Most of these mentioned mlechcha tribe were mongoloied people from central asia. Like khasas belive to be from khasakastan they were Mongoloid people.

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Territories of Kiratas

The Kirata territories were extended along the Himalayan belt of mountain ranges. Numberless chiefs of the Kiratas, armed with hunting weapons and ever engaged in hunting activities, eating of fruits and roots and attired in skins (animal-skins or tree-barks), were mentioned to dwell on the northern slopes of the Himavat (Tibet) and on the mountain from behind which the sun rises (Arunachal Pradesh) and in the region of Karusha on the sea-coast (could be the mouths of Ganga in Bangladesh or the mouths of Sindhu in Pakistan) and on both sides of the Lohitya mountains (in eastern Assam and western Arunachal Pradesh). They were mentioned as bringing tribute to Yudhisthira during his Rajasuya sacrifice. They brought with them, loads upon loads of sandal and aloe as also black aloe, and heaps upon heaps of valuable skins and gold and perfumes, and ten thousand serving-girls of their own race, and many beautiful animals and birds of remote countries, and much gold of great splendour procured from mountains (2,51). The Kairatas (Kiratas), the Daradas, the Darvas, the Suras, the Vaiamakas, the Audumvaras, the Durvibhagas, the Kumaras, the Paradas along with the Vahlikas, the Kashmiras, the Ghorakas also were mentioned, here as bringin tributes

The various tribes of Kiratas were mentioned along with the Pahlavas and the Daradas and Yavanas and Sakas and the Harahunas and Chinas and Tukharas and the Sindhavas and the Jagudas and the Ramathas and the Mundas and the inhabitants of the kingdom of women and the Tanganas and the Kekayas and the Malavas and the inhabitants of Kasmira. They were described as accepting the sway of Yudhisthira, performing various offices in his palace. (3, 51)

The Kiratas, fierce in battle, dwelling in the fastness of Himavat, were vanquished by Karna for the sake of Duryodhana (7, 4). Actually Kirata territories in past was too huge which is not only in east Asia but also in west as far as ancient Mesopotamia present day of Iraq. Sir Jhon Hammerton an ancient historian had said that there was relationship between Kirat civilization and ancient Babylon and Mesopotamia. It clearly provide some proofs that Kirata were known not only in Indian continent but in west as well.

Kiratas under the Himalayan kingdom called Pulinda

Pulinda kings were described as the kings of Kiratas also at (2,4). He is said to have attended the inauguration of the new court of Pandava king Yudhisthira at Indraprastha along with many other kings of Ancient India (Bharata Varsha). His kingdom lied to close to the Kailas range in Tibet.

Domains of king Suvahu, the lord of the Pulindas, is mentioned as situated on the Himalayas abounding in horses and elephants, densely inhabited by the Kiratas and the Tanganas, crowded by hundreds of Pulindas, frequented by the exotic tribes, and rife with wonders. Pandavas stayed here for some time on their onward-journey to the Himalayan regions (3,140).

Then all those warriors, viz the Pandavas having in due course happily lived at Badari (Badrinath, Uttarakhand), for one month, proceeded towards the realm of Suvahu, king of the Kiratas, by following the same track by which they had come. And crossing the difficult Himalayan regions, and the countries of China, Tukhara, Darada and all the climes of Kulinda, rich in heaps of jewels, those warlike men reached the capital of Suvahu (3,176).

Their final destination was the source of Yamuna. Thus they could have made a circular path, from Badari (Badrinath) to Tibet and Kashmir and finally to Himachal Pradesh.

Kiratas under Paundraka Vasudeva

There was a king named Paundraka Vasudeva, who was an enemy of Vasudeva Krishna. This king used to dress like Vasudeva Krishan and mock him. He was mentioned to rule over the kingdoms of Vanga (West Bengal), Pundra (north-Bangladesh) and Kiratas (2,14). The Kiratas mentioned here were those lived in northern hilly regions of West Bengal, like the Darjiling area.

Kiratas under Bhagadatta

Kiratas (of Bhutan) and Chinas were mentioned as forming the army of Pragjyotisha (Assam) king Bhagadatta (5,19). This army took part in the Kurukshetra War for the sake of Kauravas and its size was one Akshouhini (a huge army unit).

Kiratas conquered by Bhima

Bhima, during his military campaign in the eastern countries to collect tribute for Pandava king Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice, conquered Kirata kings, close to the Videha Kingdom

Bhima, the son of Pandu, sending forth expeditions from Videha Kingdom, conquered the seven kings of the Kiratas living about the Indra mountain (2, 29). These were considered to be the Kiriatas in Nepal.

Kiratas conquered by Nakula

Nakula during his military campaign in the western countries to collect tribute for Pandava king Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice, conquered Kiratas in the western hills

Nakula, the son of Pandu, then reduced to subjection the fierce Mlechchas residing on the sea coast (in Karachi area), as also the wild tribes of the Palhavas (an Iranian tribe), the Kiratas, the Yavanas and the Sakas (2,31). These Kiratas lied in the western mountains in Pakistan.

Kiratas in Kurukhsetra War

Kiratas (of Bhutan) and Chinas were part of the one Akshouhini of troops of Pragjyotisha (Assam) king Bhagadatta who joined the side of the Kauravas(5,19).

Western Kiratas were mentioned along with the Sakas, and Yavanas, the Sivis and the Vasatis as marching in the huge army of Kauravas (5,198). The Sakas, the Kiratas, the Yavanas, and the Pahlavas were mentioned in a battle-array formed by the Kauravas (6,20). Similarly they are mentioned in another battle-array formed on another day at (6,50).

Words of Satyaki, a Yadava chief on the side of Pandavas, during Kurukshetra War:- Those other elephants 700 in number, all cased in armour and ridden by Kiratas, and decked with ornaments, the king of the Kiratas, desirous of his life, had formerly presented to Arjuna. These were formerly employed in doing good to Yudhisthira. Behold the vicissitudes that time brings about, for these are now battling against Yudhisthira. Those elephants are ridden by Kiratas difficult to defeat in battle. They are accomplished in fighting from elephants, and are all sprung from the race of Agni. Formerly, they were all vanquished in battle by Arjuna. They are now waiting for me carefully, under the orders of Duryodhana. Slaying with my shafts these Kiratas difficult of defeat in battle, I shall follow in the track of Arjuna (7,109).

The Tusharas, the Yavanas, the Khasas, the Darvabhisaras, the Daradas, the Sakas, the Kamathas, the Ramathas, the Tanganas the Andhrakas (obivously not the southern Andhras), the Pulindas, the Kiratas of fierce prowess, the Mlecchas, the Mountaineers, and the races hailing from the sea-side, were all united in battle for the purpose of the Kaurava king Duryodhana. (8,73)

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The ruler of the Kiratas died in battle (8,5).

A Naga named Lohita was mentioned at (2, 9) along with other prominent Naga (Kirata) kings like Vasuki, Takshaka and Airavata. Naga King Lohita ruled a territory close to the Kasmira. Arjuna visited this kingdom during his military campaign to the north, to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Rajasuya sacrifice. Arjuna then defeated the brave Kshatriyas of Kashmira and also Kirata king Lohita along with ten minor chiefs. (2,26). Having acknowledged bravery and honesty of Kirata people later Arjuna became so much impressed with this Kirata people of Assam and decided to make permanent friendship with Kirata people so he was mentioned married with Naga Kirata lady of Manipur. Mahabharataa tradition of being the seat of the Naga king Citravahana, whose daughter Citrangada was married to Arjuna. Ancient Kirata were nature worshipper and used to worship snake as well. This kind of all ancient religion were adopted or hijacked by this Indo Aryan people and assimilated in their religion. The snake - worship is more widely distributed and developed in more interesting forms, among the various tribes of Assam. Among the Khasis of Assam the most remarkable form of serpent-worship is that of U Thlen, a gigantic snake which demands to be appeased by the sacrifice of human victims, and for whose sake murders have been committed. In ancient time the ancestral god of the royal family is a snake called Pakhangba. The Rabhas worship a serpent God which once dwelt in a cave and was propitiated by the annual sacrifice of a boy and a girl. Because of this reason Kirateshwore Mahadev always seems carring snake on his neck. Manipur a Kirata land in ancient time was so much developed and wealthy. Literally, the word ‘Manipur' means a jewel of a land, and the state is set like a gem in the wavy mountains. According to legend, Lord Shiva and his wife Parvati danced in the valleys of Manipur accompanied with the Ghandharvas to the celestial light of Mani (jewel) from the head of the Atishesha, a serpant and that is how it has come to be called Manipuri. This dance is an inherent part of the rituals of daily life and it is performed on religious occasions and in temples throughout the region.

Naga Ananta was the first among all the Naga Kirata kings. The second Naga chief Vasuki had the kingdom near Kailasa (hence the connection of Vasuki with lord Siva). The third chief Takshaka, in Takshasila both not far from Anantnag. The kingdoms of other Nagas like Karkotaka and Airavata (near Iravati River (Ravi, one among the five rivers of Punjab) were also not far away. Nagas(Kirata) had kingdoms in Nagaland and Andhra Pradesh. Arjuna's wife Ulupi was from one of such Naga kingdom (in Gangetic Plain) Arjuna's another wife Chitrangada who also was known to Ulupi was from Manipur. There are now many Naga worshiping places in South India, especially in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Actually this nag was not really human form of  nag but one group of Kirata Naga who used to worship nag and they claim they are decendant of nag. Who used to rule carrying many different kind of snake. Even making statue, picture, on flag (like on flag of Bhutan you can see dragon and many Chinese flag) and even real snake in their throne. So for their Naga Kirata king. Aryan people started to give them many names like kali nag, shesh nag, karkotak nag, vashuki nag actually all of them were Kirata people. Still the Chinese people claim they are descendant of dragon (another form of gigantic snake). Still Bhutan is called land of thunder dragon in ancient time Bhutan used to called Kirata deshe (land of Kirata) and their king is called Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King). Khmer people have mythology, according to which they came from Assam Nagaland and their ancestors were Kirata Naga and their main deity is nag (snake). Serpents, or Nagas, play a particularly important role in Cambodian mythology. A well-known story explains the emergence of the Khmer people from the union of Indian and indigenous (Kirata) elements, the latter being represented as Nagas. According to the story, an Indian Brahman named Kaundinya came to Cambodia, which at the time was under the dominion of the Naga king. The Naga princess Soma sailed forth to fight against the invader but was defeated. Presented with the option of marrying the victorious Kaundinya, Soma readily agreed to do so, and together they ruled the land. The Khmer people are their descendants. Same thing, Naga people of  Myanmar (Burma) had their main god as nag (snake). This nag worshiping system was flourished from Assam to Nepal, Japan, China, Korea and in west as well. Still, in Vietnam, many of the ancient temples are guardian by dragon. Lalit, the king of Katmandu, Nepal brought Rato Machindra Nath from Assam because at that time Katmandu suffered from severe form of drought. He believed that Rato Machindra can bring rainfall. The word Naga in the Sanskrit language means snake or serpent. It seems likely that the Naga (Kirata) people were a serpent-worshipping group who were later described as serpents themselves in ancient Indian literature. This transformation or identification was much like the Vanaras (forest-dwelling humans) turning unto monkeys in the later literature. This facts shows that in ancient time one group of Kirata people used to worship snake and their king ruled with bearing snake mark in their throne, so they were given a name of Naga king.

Arjuna's conquests after Kurukhsetra War

Countless was. The fete of Kshatriyas, of kings in myriads, who fought with Arjuna on the occasion of his military campaign to collect tribute for Yudhisthira's Ashwamedha sacrifice, for having lost their kinsmen on the field of Kurukshetra was countless. Innumerable Kiratas and also Yavanas, who were all excellent bowmen, and diverse tribes of Mlechechas too, who were discomfited before (by the Pandavas on the field of Kurukshetra), and many Aryan kings, who possessed of soldiers and animals, encountered Arjuna in battle (14,73). He battled with the Kasis, the Angas, the Kosalas, the Kiratas, and the Tanganas (14, 83).

Siva and Kiratas

Siva who dwelled in Kailasa (Kailas range in Tibet) was mentioned as fighting with Arjuna in the guise of a Kirata in high-Himalayas (3-39,49). Siva and Parbati was considered to have taken incarnation of Kirata and Kiratani in Swasthani brata katha and living around Pasupatinath area like Slesh mantak ban. Maha Shiva Puran described Mahadev was as a chieftain of Kirat tribe. Siva sometimes assumes the form of Kiratas, Pisachas and Savaras, or that of any exotic tribes (13, 14). There is no doubt he was Kirata because of his nature and structure. Parvati was also Kirata women who was born in Himalaya, her father was Himalaya, since that time only the Kiratas were aborigine in that area. Kirata women are as mighty as man, as they used to kill bear and tiger when they go to jungle. Perhaps Aryan people might have appreciated power of Kirata lady at that time, so they called her in many name Kali, Kapali, Bhadrakali, Durga, Chandi etc. Because Chandi devi is the main deities of Kirata people and she is considered as mighty Kirata lady. Still Tripuri people worship these goddess in various forms and names, with sacrificing animals and even human being in ancient time. Still Tripura people practice this kind of religion they have own their name for all the Hindu goddess like Kali, Durga, Chandi etc. Bramhin people never saw worshiping goddess with sacrificing blood. Even Hindu religion itself did not belong to Vedic Aryan, later they assimilated with their system. All the gods and goddess were already in existent before Vedic Aryan people invaded India, which is proved by Japanese and Chinese historians. Lord Buddha was rebelling against Hindu religion, the cast system and that time of Hindu people viewed him as demon but later because of his popularity Hindu people put him as 9th incarnation of God Vishnu which is ridiculous.

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Valmiki and Kiratas:

Valmiki was born into this hunter tribe (Kirata birth name was Ratnakar) but due to his wisdom and saintly personality he became a Brahmana who learned Sanskrit. He is the writer of the Ramayana.

Absence of Brahmins among Kiratas

The Mekalas, the Dravidas, the Lathas, the Paundras, the Konwasiras, the Saundikas, the Daradas, the Darvas, the Chauras, the Savaras, the Varvaras, the Kiratas, the Yavanas, and numerous other tribes of Kshatriyas, have become degraded into the status of Sudras through the absence of Brahmanas. (13,35)

There is Doubt about Rawan as well even though It's not real but only story because name of the rawan's sister was Subarna Khan. The Khan word was only used by Mongol tribe. In Mongolia and Turkey (Mongoloid people) used to say khan for their ruler and khanate for place where the ruler ruled. Like Genghis khan and khanate is Mongolian ulan batar. Later who claimed the descendant of Mongol people they used to put khan title. Nowadays one can find khan title in Pakistan but they are not Mongol but they took that title because of high prestige.

KIRATA CONNECTIONS WITH CHINESE

Which I alredy mentioned that Kirata territories was very vast which touches inner part of China as well and they have very friendly and unique friendship to each other being as same yellow race who fought in Mahabharataa and against this Indo-Aryan people who were invader of Indian continent. Their ancestor came from middle east (Iran) 1500 BC. It is mentioned that Deva used to drink soma rash in ancient time. This soma rash means wine made from a kind of plant. This word is not Indian word, the word came from Iran and afganstan. Still Afghani and Irani people use to say SOME for wine. It can clearly proved that Aryan (Chetris And Bramhins) ancestors were Irani people. How the Kirata people and Chinese people had very good friendly relation to each other at the time of Mahabharataa, I would like to take some reference from Mahabharata epic battle.

China (Cinaratha) in the Epic of Mahabharata

It is well known fact that in the Mahabharataa the Cinas appear with the Kiratas among the armies of king Bhagadatta of Pragjyotisa or Assam. In the Sabhaparvan the king was described as surrounded by the Kiratas and the Cinas. In the Bhismaparvan, the corps of Bhagadatta, consisting of the Kiratas and the Cinas of yellow color, appeared like a forest of Karnikaras. It is significant that the Kiratas represented all the people living to the east of India in the estimation of the geographers of the Puranas. Even the dwellers of the islands of the Eastern Archipelago were treated as Kiratas in the Epics. The reference to their wealth of gold, silver, gems, sandal, aloe wood, textiles and fabrics clearly demonstrates their association with the regions included in Suvarnadvipa. Thus, the connection of the Kiratas and Cinas is a sure indication of the fact that the Indians came to know of the Chinese through the eastern routes and considered them as an eastern people, having affinities to the Kiratas, who were the Indo-Mongoloids, inhabiting the Tibeto-Burman regions and the Himalayan and East Indian territories, (all Afghanistan, Pakistan, India (Himalyan range) to Cambodia and Vietnam as well. The word Kirata derived from Kirata or Kirata, the name of a group of people in eastern Nepal.

In early Indian literature China is invariably shown to be connected with India by a land-route across the country of the Kiratas in the mountainous regions of the north. In the Vanaparvan of the Mahabharata, the Pandava brothers are said to have crossed the country of the Cinas in course of their trek through the Himalayan territory north of Badri and reached the realm of the Kirata king Subahu. The Cinas are brought into intimate relationship with the Himalayan people (Haimavatas) in the Sabhaparvan also. The land of the Haimavatas is undoubtedly the Himavantappa desa of the Pali texts, which has been identified with Tibet or Nepal. In the Sasanavamsa, this region is stated to be Cinarattha. Thus, it is clear that China was known to the Indians as lying across the Himalayas and was accordingly included in the Himalayan territories. In the Nagarjunikonda inscription of Virapurusdatta, China (Cina) is said to be lying in the Himalayas beyond Cilata or Kirata. These references to the proximity of China to the Himalayan regions, inhabited by the Kiratas, show that there were regular routes through the Tibeto-Burman territories, along which the Indians could reach China. There is a myth and written in many Hindu religion book Kirataeswore (Lord Siva) created Sangrila. In Kirata country Himalayan range like Nepal, Bhutan and North part of India, where the living being never have sorrow, poor, and sickness which is like heaven. Still many yogi from India go to Himalaya in search of Sangrilla. What can one get knowledge with that myth is that it can clearly shows economic status of Kirata people and their land. That time of Chinese and India Aryan people's connection was clearly through the Kirata land and Kirata people which is mentioned in Mahabharata.

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(Source: The Soul of India ­ by Amaury de Riencourt p 141 and 161).

China and Kirata in Ramayan

Kiskindhakanda of Valmiki's Ramayana makes reference to Cinas as well as Parama-Cinas and associates them with the trans-Himalayan tribes of the Daradas, Kambojas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Kiratas, the Bahlikas, the Rishikas, and the Tañkanas of the Uttarapatha. [4].

The epic literature asserts that the Cinas, Khasas, Hunas, Shakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Kiratas, Sinhalas, Mlechchas etc were created by sage Vashistha through the divine powers of cow Sabala or Nandini (Kamdhenu).

China and Kirata in Puran

In the Kalika Purana, the Cinas are again grouped with the Kiratas, Shakas, Khasas and the Barabaras etc and are said to have sided with Buddhist king Kali in the war against Vedic king Kalika [6].

Bhuvanakosha section of numerous Puranas locates the Cinas along with the Kiratas, Pahlavas, Kambojas, and Barbaras in the Udichya or northern division of ancient India. According to Vayu Purana and the Matsya Purana, the Cinas and several other tribes would be annihilated by king Kalika or Pramiti at the end of Kali age [8].

In the Matsya Purana, the Chinas are said to be unfit for performing shraddhah. [Matsya Purana, 16.16]

There is yet another reference to China as Cina-maru as referred to in the Vayu Purana and Brahmanda Purana. However, at the same place, Matsya Purana mentions Vira-maru. China-maru or Vira-maru has been identified with the lands of Turkestan situated above And-khui in the north of Afghanistan (Dr K. P. Jayswal, Dr M. R. Singh).

China and Kirata in Buddhist literature

The Cinas also find reference in the Buddhist play, Mudrarakshasa, where they are listed with other contemporary tribes, such as the Shakas, Yavanas, Kiratas, Cambojas, Bhalikas, Parasikas, Khasas, Gandharas, Kalutas, etc.

Buddhist text Milindapanho (see: Sacred Books of the East, xxxvi, 204), associates the Chinas with the Kirata, Yavanas, Kambojas and Vilatas(?) etc, and locates them in the western Tibet/ Ladakh, according to Dr Michael Witzel.

Other literature

Chanakya (c. 350-283 BC), the prime minister of the Maurya Empire and a professor at Takshashila University, refers to Chinese silk as 'cinamsuka' (Chinese silk dress) and 'cinapatta' (Chinese silk bundle) in his Arthashastra.

The Sanmoha Tantra speaks of the Tantric culture of the foreign countries like the Bahlika (Bactria), Kirata, Bhota (Tibet), Cina, Maha-Cina, Parasika. He is so impressed with Kiratas and written too many wonderful words about Kirata culture. They were fierce fighter, hunter and good business man as well in his Arthasastra. The way of bossiness between China and India was route via Kirata Land or Kirata Deshe.

Around the 2nd century BC, the Laws of Manu describes the downfall of the Chinas, as well as many foreign groups in India like Kiratas.

'43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmans, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Shudras.

44. (Viz.) The Paundrakas, the Chodas, the Dravidas, the Kambojas, the Yavanas, the Shakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Chinas, the Kiratas, the Daradas and the Khashas.' [11]

Besides China and Parama-China, there is also a reference to Maha-China in the Manasollasa which text mentions the fabrics from MahaChina.[12] It is thus possible that China probably referred to western Tibet or Ladakh, Maha-China to Tibet proper, and Parama-China to Mainland China.

[edit] References

1.  Geographical Data in Early Puranas, 1972, p172, Dr M. R. Singh

2.  MBH 6/9/65-66

3.  MBH 12/65/13-15

4.  The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India , Volume 4, Kiskindhakanda, p 151, Rosalind Lefeber

5.  Ramayana (1.52-55) & Mahabharataa (1.174.6-48)

6.  Kalika Purana 20/40

7.  ':ete desha Udichyastu

Kambojashchaiva Dardashchaiva Barbarashcha Angaukikah || 47 ||

Chinashchaiva Tusharashcha Pahlavadhayata narah || 48 ||

— (Brahma Purana 27.44-53)'

8.    Vayu I, 58.78-83; Matsya 114.51.58

9.    Early East Iran , And The Atharvaveda, 1980, (Persica-9), p 106, Dr Michael Witzel.

10.  Tan Chung (1998). A Sino-Indian Perspective for India-China Understanding.

11.  Manusmritti (Laws of Manu), X.43-44

12.  Op cit, 1972, p p 172, Dr M. R. Singh.

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